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Natural Sciences (2014-2002)

Botany

2013

A Comparative Study of In Vitro Total Antioxidant, In Vivo Antidiabetic and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil from Leaves and Rind of Citrus Reticulate Blanco Cv Murcot (Honey)
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Pakistan, 2013, 45(5):1571-1576
Mehmood, F., Zaheer –ud-Din and Mughal, T.

Abstract:
The present investigation aimed to evaluate the anti-emetic activity of some members of the family Euphorbiaceae of Lahore region. The selected plants were Euphorbia prostrata, Euphorbia splendens, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia helioscopia, Ricinus communis, Jatropha integerrima, Putranjiva roxburghii and Phyllanthus emblica. Anti-emetic activity was carried out by the preparation of aqueous extract of these plants. Anti-emetic investigations showed that aqueous extracts of E. prostrata, P. roxburghii and P. emblica have high potential to reduce the frequency of retching in CuSO4 induced emesis in four days old chicks. Frequency of retching after treatment of aqueous extracts of E. prostrata, P.a roxburghii and P. emblica were 24.8 ± 0.89, 17.4 ± 0.89, 15.2 ± 0.58, respectively, which statistically proved significant at p<0.01 from the control (87.2 ± 1.46, 82.6 ± 1.46, 82.6 ± 1.45, respectively) values.

Antimicrobial Activities of Some Derivatives of Triacetic Lactone and their Cd (II) and Hg (II) Complexes
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2013, 25(2): 633-636
Shahid, S., Mughal, T.A. and Shah, H.

Abstract:
Triacetic lactone derived compounds and Cd (II) and Hg (II) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and screened for biological activities. Antibacterial activity was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans and Sarcina lutae. In vitro antifungal activities were carried out against Trichoderma viridis, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium laterifum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentogrophytes and Microsporum canis. The results of these studies showed that these metal complexes to be have more potential for antimicrobial activates as compared to the ligand. Cd (II) complex is more active against the all tested bacterial and fungal strains.

Anti-Emetic Activity the Present Investigation aimed to Evaluate the Anti-Emetic Activity of Some Members of the Family Euphorbiaceae of Lahore Region
African Journal of Plant Sciences, 2013, 7 (9):426-431
Mughal, T.A. and Mahboob, S.

Abstract:
The present investigation aimed to evaluate the anti-emetic activity of some members of the family Euphorbiaceae of Lahore region. The selected plants were Euphorbia prostrata, Euphorbia splendens, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia helioscopia, Ricinus communis, Jatropha integerrima, Putranjiva roxburghii and Phyllanthus emblica. Anti-emetic activity was carried out by the preparation of aqueous extract of these plants. Anti-emetic investigations showed that aqueous extracts of E. prostrata, P. roxburghii and P. emblica have high potential to reduce the frequency of retching in CuSO4 induced emesis in four days old chicks. Frequency of retching after treatment of aqueous extracts of E. prostrata, P.a roxburghii and P. emblica were 24.8 ± 0.89, 17.4 ± 0.89, 15.2 ± 0.58, respectively, which statistically proved significant at p<0.01 from the control (87.2 ± 1.46, 82.6 ± 1.46, 82.6 ± 1.45, respectively) values.

Evaluation of Anthelmintic Potential of Some Members of Family Moraceae
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2013, 7(9): 426-431
Mughal, T.A., Arshad, S. and Mahboob, S.

Abstract:
The present investigation was developed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of some members of family Moraceae. The selected plants were Ficus bengalensis, Ficus religiosa, Ficus glomerata, Morus indica and Morus laevigata. Anthelmintic activity was carried out by the preparation of methanolic extracts of different parts of these selected plants. For anthelmintic activity, the dried leaves of F. bengalensis, F. religiosa and F. glomerata, dried fruits and leaves of M. indica and M. laevigata were extracted with water and methanol for anthelmintic activity. Anthelmintic studies indicated that the methanolic extracts of F. bengalensis, F. religiosa, F. glomerata, M. indica and M. laevigata significantly caused paralysis (12.50 ± 0.50, 25 ± 1.00, 19.50 ± 0.50, 15.50 ± 0.50 and 9.50 ± 0.50, respectively), and death (70.50 ± 0.50, 68.5 ± 0.50, 69.00 ± 1.00, 43.50 ± 0.50 and 40.00 ± 1.32, respectively) of worms especially at higher concentration (100 mg/ml) compared with reference drug sample of Albendazole (Paralysis time: 10.60 ± 0.53 and Death time: 36.27 ± 1.42).

Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Studies on Solanum torvum Swartz
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2013, 3 (04): 152-160
Yousaf, Z., Wang, Y. and Baydounc, E.

Abstract:
The botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of S. torvum Sw. belonging to family Solanaceae have been reviewed by evaluating information on the Internet (using Google Scholar, CABAbstracts, Blackwell synergy, Elsevier, Cambridge University Press, JSTOR, Nature Publishing and Science online) and in libraries. Traditional medicinal uses of S. torvum were recorded in the Ayurveda and Chinese pharmacopeia. The present review study covered chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of S. torvum as well as its morphology. This has included therapeutic effects of the whole plant and its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. Antimicrobial, anti-ulcerogenic, antiviral, anti-platelet aggregation, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, systolic blood-pressure modification, and cytotoxic activities have all been described. Previous research studies carried out using different in-vitro and in-vivo bioassay techniques supported the claims of the therapeutic utility of the species.

2012

Biosynthesis of Zn Bacitracin by Bacillus Licheniformis under Submerged Fermentation using Wheat Bran
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2012, 01(04): 498-510
Tahir, A., Roohi, H.H. and Mughal, T.A.

Abstract:
Present study describes the activation of enzyme phytase in Aspergillus niger LCWU 21 isolated from the soil by solid substrate fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran as culture medium. The addition of surfactants showed stimulatory effect on enzyme formation. Effect of the addition of surfactants showed that the addition of Triton x-100 enhanced enzyme production (60.3 U/ml). It was found that concentration and time of addition of surfactant are critical for enzyme synthesis. The rate of phytase production was higher in the presence of Triton X-100. Addition of Triton X-100 at the time of inoculation gave maximum enzyme production. These results are encouraging for optimization under industrial conditions.

Allelopathic Plants: 24. Genus Allium L.
Allelopathy Journal, 2012, 29(1):1-12
Yousaf, Z., Umer, A., Younas, A., Khan, F. and Wang, Y.

Abstract:
Allium is medicinal genus, rich in carbohydrates and organic-sulphur compounds such as Allicin (a precursor for the production of alkaloids, saponins and glycosides). Many phytochemicals have been isolatedfrom various species of this genus, but only few (Allinase and Ajoene) are active as pesticides. Leaf extracts of garlic (A. sativum) controls 98% growth of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans).  Allium cepa, A. sativum, A. fistulosum and A. ampeloparasum are fungicidal against the Alternaria alternata, A. brassicola and Myrothecium roridum. The phenol and sulphur based allelopathic compounds of genus Allium can be used for weeds and insects management in agricultural systems.

2011

Assessment of Thyroid Hormones Level in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Females
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2011, 1 (3): 165-178
Farasat, T., Mughal, T. and Liaqat, A.

Abstract:
Thyroid dysfunction is the common endocrine disorder and females are more affected than males. The aim of this study was to assess the serum thyroid hormones level in premenopausal and postmenopausal females with thyroid dysfunction and observed the effect of thyroid dysfunction on body weight and menstrual regularity. Total 91 female subjects were included in the study. Serum thyroid hormone levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4 were assessed by ELISA technique. It was concluded from the present study that serum TSH levels were significantly higher in premenopausal and postmenopausal hypothyroid females as compared to the control group (P<0.01). In hyperthyroid premenopausal females serum TSH level was significantly lower from the control group (P<0.01). Serum FT3 level was significantly higher in hyperthyroid premenopausal and postmenopausal females as compared to control group (P<0.01). In this study, 80% of premenopausal hypothyroid females and 65% of hyperthyroid females complained about menstrual irregularities, this percentage is high as compared to control subjects which is 20% (P<0.01). Inverse negative correlation was observed between TSH, T3, TSH, and T 4, whereas positive correlation was observed between T3 and T 4. Thyroid dysfunction can lead to menstrual irregularities and infertility.

Serum Thyroid and its Regulatory Hormone Levels in Obese Women with Sedentary Lifestyle
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2011, 4(3): 370-375
Farasat, T., Mughal, T. and Farooq, S.

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and its regulatory hormone (TSH) levels in obese women with sedentary life style. The studied population consists of 180 female subjects of age group 20-45 years. The study was carried out on female population of Allama Iqbal Town, Samanabad, and Lahore College for Women University, Lahore. The subjects were divided into three categories on the basis of body mass index (BMI): normal weight subjects (n=60) overweight subjects (n=60) and obese subjects (n=60) according to Asian criteria. Thyroid hormone levels were assessed by commercially available Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 13.0). It is concluded that although thyroid function was in clinically normal range in all the subjects but when comparison was done between the groups using one way ANOVA serum T3 concentration was significantly low in obese and overweight subjects in comparison with normal weight subjects (p≤0.005). Serum T4 concentration was significantly lowers in overweight and obese subjects in comparison to normal weight (p≤0.005). Serum TSH concentration was significantly higher in obese in comparison with normal weight (p≤0.0).

Taxonomic Treatment of Medicinally Important Arboreal Flora of Tropical and Subtropical Region Based on Leaf Epidermal Anatomical Markers
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011, 5(28): 6439-6454
Khan, F., Yousaf, Z., Rani, S. and Khan, F.

Abstract:
Identification of medicinally important arboreal flora is important for sustainable and effective utilization. However phenotypic markers are insufficient for correct identification. Therefore present study was conducted for taxonomic evaluation of the selected sixteen tropical and subtropical medicinally important arboreal species, belonging to four orders and six angiosperm families based on leaf epidermal anatomical markers. The experiment was performed in the molecular taxonomy Laboratory, Department of Botany, Lahore College for Women University, Jail Road Lahore, Pakistan. The results of present investigations showed substantial variation in size, shape and arrangement of epidermal cells, stomata and trichomes. Eight different shapes of stomata; anomcytic, anomotetracytic, actinocytic, amphianisocytic, brachyparacytic, anisocytic, amphicyclocytic and stauricytic were observed. Anomotetracytic was the most dominant type of stomata observed in trees of tropical and subtropical region. Staurocytic stomata were found in Erythrina subrosa L. The variation was also found in number and shape of subsidiary cells and silica bodies. The present study concluded that leaf epidermal anatomical markers could be utilized significantly in delimiting the closely related taxa of medicinally important arboreal flora of tropical and sub tropical regions.

2010

Optimization of Cultural Conditions for the Propagation of Gliocladium Viride ZIC 2063 as Potential Biosorbent
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2010, 1 (1):37-46
Tahir, A., Zahid, S., Mateen, B., Farasat,T. and Mughal, T.

Abstract:
In the present study, the propagation of a newly isolated Gliocladium viride ZIC2063 for maximum mycelium formation is checked. This is the first report on the optimization of Gliocladium viride ZIC2063 cultural conditions to get high mycelium concentrations that is to be used in further biosorption process. The mould mycelium was exploited as biosorbent. The present study was designed to optimize culture medium and other cultural conditions (pH, temperature, incubation time, inoculum age and size) for the growth of fungal culture as biosorbent. The amount of mycelium was doubled due to optimization. The Gliocladium viride ZIC2063, being high chromium resistant, thermostable and acid stable, can find application in the treatment of tanning effluent of leather industry and combating.

Antibacterial Activity of Black Tea against Streptococcus Mutans and its Synergism with Antibiotics
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2010, 2 (2):01-08
Mughal, T., Tahir, A., Qureshi, S., Nazir, T. and Rasheed, M.

Abstract:
Tea is the most common beverage after it is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinenesis. It is classified in to fermented tea (Black Tea) and non-fermented tea (green tea). Methanolic extract of tea diluted in methanol and ethanol, which were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Methanol was found to be best antimicrobial solvent. The MIC value of methanolic extracts of Black Tea diluted in ethanol was 0.1 mg/ml. Synergistic results of antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts (diluted in ethanol) were found poor. Synergistic activity of Black tea sample with antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Levofloxacin and Gentamycin) showed best response against most of the bacteria (0.1mg/ml).

Moringaoleifera: A Natural Gift, a Review
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research India, 2010, 2 (11):775-781
Mahmood, K.T., Mughal, T. and Akram, M.

Abstract: Moringa oleifera, Lam {Syn M.pterygosperma Gaertn} usually mentioned in literature as Moringa, is a natural as well as cultivated variety of the genus Moringa belonging to family Moringaceae. It is one of the richest plant sources of Vitamins A, B {1, 2, 3, 6, and 7}, C, D, E and K. The vital minerals present in Moringa include Calcium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Manganese and Zinc. It has more than 40 natural anti-oxidants. Moringa has been used since 150B.C. by ancient kings and queens in their diet for mental alertness and healthy skin. The leaves, pods, seeds, gums , bark and flowers of Moringa are used in more than 80 countries {including Pakistan} to relieve mineral and vitamin deficiencies, support a healthy cardiovascular system, promote normal blood-glucose levels, neutralize free radicals {thereby reducing malignancy}, provide excellent support of the body's anit-flammatory mechanisms, enrich anemic blood and support immune system. It also improves eyesight, mental alertness and bone strength. It has potential benefit in malnutrition, general weakness, lactating mothers, menopause, depression and osteoporosis. It is also used to make an efficient fuel, fertilizer and livestock feed. Moringa is an edible extremely safe plant. Its tree could easily and cheaply be cultivated and grown in Pakistan. We need to explore therapeutic, nutritional and benefit of this gift of nature reported to be one of the world's most useful trees.

Isolation and Biochemical Identification of E. coli from Waste Effluents of a Dairy Industry
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2010, 3(2): 86-88
Farasat, T., Mughal, T., Bilal, A. and Fakhar-un-Nisa

Abstract:
Microbial assessment of waste effluents from dairy industry revealed the presence of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Maximum percentage of E.coli was observed in milk and yogurt waste as compared to cheese and butter waste effluent. There is significant difference in number of bacterial colonies among dairy waste effluents. Some strains of E.coli are pathogenic and can cause serious health effects to humans by direct or indirect waste such as through water bodies to which waste effluent is discharged.

Phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Euphorbiaceae Species from Lahore Region, Pakistan
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2010, 3(2):79-85
Mughal, T., Maimoona, A.,Saddiqe, Z., Qureshi, S. and Mehboob, S

Abstract: 
Euphorbia prostrata, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia splendens, Ricinus communis and Jatropha integearrima (Family: Euphorbiaceae) were selected to explore the phytochemical and pharmacognostical properties. Species of Euphorbiaceae are extensivley used as remedies against several diseases and complaints such as cancer, diabetes, diarrhoea, heart diseases, hemorrhages, hepatitis, jaundice, malaria, ophthalmic diseases, rheumatism and scabies etc. The dried leaves of Euphorbia splendens, Ricinus communis and Jatropha integearrima and dried whole plants of Euphorbia prostrata and Euphorbia hirta extracted with methanol. The Phytochemical screenings was done to identify the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, phytosterol, phenol, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phlobatannins that is helpful in the confirmation of the authenticity of the plants.

Evaluation of Allelopathic Action of Some Selected Medicinal Plant on Lettuce Seeds by using Sandwich Method
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2010, 4 (7):536-541
 Anjum, A., Hussain, U., Yousaf, Z., Khan, F., and Umer, A
    
Abstract:
Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate allelopathic action of fourteen selected medicinal plants of semi-arid plain areas on lettuce growth through Sandwich method. Toxic (inhibitory) and non-toxic (stimulatory) effects were assessed by recording their effect on germination, radicle and percentage growth of hypocotyl. Both were examined for hypocotyl growth of lettuce seeds under the influence of leaves. However, the extent of inhibitory and stimulatory effect of leaves varied with the plant species. The results showed that Albizia lebbeck and Broussonetia papyrifera have strong inhibitory effect on radical and hypocotyl growth of lettuce.

Phenetic Analysis of Medicinally Important Species of the Genus Solanum from Pakistan
Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2010, 42(3): 1827-1833
Yousaf, Z., Shinwari, Z.K. and Khan, M.A

Abstract:
Solanum is one of the largest and hyper diverse genera of the family Solanaceae. In Pakistan Solanum is represented by 15 species, of which 11 species have the medicinal properties. Taxonomically this is a complex genus because of the presence of number of hybrid and controversial taxonomic status of S. nigrum complex. In the present study numerical techniques were utilized to evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Solanum. Cluster analysis was employed to work out the relationship among the taxa of the genus Solanum. The Euclidean distance measured similarity matrix and a dendrogram was constructed by using the complete linkage method. This analysis showed that all the species of genus Solanum can easily be divided into two groups at hundred percentage linkage distance. Co-relation of quantitative characters showed that floral characters had highly significant relationship with the stem characters, these characters plays a significant role in the identification of the species of the genus Solanum.

Evaluation of Allelopathic Potential of Some Selected Medicinal Species
African Journal of Biotechnology, 2010, 9(37), 6194-6206
Umer, A., Yousaf, Z., Khan, F., Hussain, U., Anjum, A., Nayyab, Q. and Younas, A.

Abstract:
Laboratory trials were made to evaluate the allelopathic potential of selected medicinal species. The aqueous extracts bioassay on two test plants (wheat and pea) was carried out through filter paper method. Toxicity and non-toxicity was assessed by recording their effects on germination and percentage growth of radicle and plumule of test plants. The trials were replicated three times in Randomized Complete Split Block Design. The data was analyzed by using software SPSS v II. The results suggested that Sonchus asper and Melilotus officinalis stimulate the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) up to 150% of plumule and 40% of radicle. These species had significantly enhanced effect on the percentage growth of test plant. The inhibitory effect was more on the wheat, by aqueous extractions of Sisymbrium irio, Cannabis sativus and Oxalis corniculata. The growth of wheat was more enhanced in the aqueous extractions of Gallium aperine and Ageratum conizoides, almost 150% of radicle. But the most inhibitory and retarded effect was observed in case of S. irio, O. corniculata, Rumex dentatus and Parthenium hysterophorus.

2009

Level of Anxiety and Depression among Cancer Patients and their Spouses
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2009, 1 (1):7-15
Aziz, M.T., Qureshi, S., Mughal, T. and Afshan, G.

Abstract:
The present study focuses on identifying the level of anxiety and depression among the cancer patients and their spouses. A sample of 72 (46 males and 26 females) cancer patients along with their spouses was selected from Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital and Research Hospital and Research center (SKMCH&RC) Lahore. Hospital anxiety and Depression scale 9Hads) and Siddique Shah Depression Scale 9SSDS) were applied to measure the level of anxiety of in depression in these patients and their spouses. A demographic information questionnaire was formulated and administrated. It was hypothesized that cancer patients had higher level of anxiety and depression as compared to male patients and their partners. Moreover their relationship of age and education to anxiety and depression was also explored. The results showed that that there was a high level of depression among cancer patients as compared to females. The same true for spouses. No significant differences were found in the levels of anxiety when measured by HADS. The age and education of the patients didn’t play significant role in the development of anxiety and depression.

Comparative Antibacterial Activity of Green Tea and Lemon Grass Extracts against Streptococcus Mutans and its Synergism with Antibiotics
Journal of Applied Pharmacy (Canada), 2009, 2(1):16-25
Mughal, T., Tahir, A., Aziz, M.T. and Rasheed, M.

Abstract:
Tea is the most common beverage after it is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinenesis. It is classified in to fermented tea (black tea), non-fermented tea (Green tea). The decoction of Cymbopogon citrates (Lemon grass) also used as Qawa. Extract of tea samples in methanol and ethanol which was further diluted in methanol and water tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Methanol was found to be best antimicrobial solvent. MIC of methanolic extract of green tea diluted in methanol was determined and found to be bactericidal in concentration of 0.1g/ml against Streptococcus mutans. MIC value of methanolic extracts of green tea diluted in ethanol was 0.1 mg/ml. Synergistic result of antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts (Diluted in ethanol) was poor. Synergistic activity of tea samples with antibiotics (Chloroamphenicol, Tetracycline, Levofolxacin and Gentamycin) showed best response against the bacteria (0.1mg/ml).  

Evaluation of Metal Pollution in Medicinal Plants
Researcher (USA Journal), 2009, 1(4): 42-49
Naeem, I., Taskeen, A., Arif, N., Mobeen, H. and Mughal, T.

Abstract:
In this study following plants were used: Withinia Coagulas, Sarcococca Saligna, Cronopus Didymus, Senecio Chrysanthamoides, Aerva javanica, Vinca major, Salvadora (yellow), Impatiens walleriana, Pteris vittata, Calotropis procera, Eicohhornia crassipes, Pinus walliachiana. All these plants have different medicinal properties. 10 metals used in study were Magnesium, Potassium, Chromium, Copper, Nickel, Iron, Arsenic, Cobalt, Lead and Cadmium. It was concluded from the study that lead was present in highest amount among all these plants and it could be dangerous. All plants Pinus walliachiana contained highest amount of lead 450.60 ppb. Other metals were also present but their concentration was less as compared to lead.

A New Variety of Solanum Surattense Burm. from Pakistan
Pakistan Journal Botany, 2009, 41(5): 2097-2103
Yousaf, Z., Khan, M.A.,and Shinwari, Z.K.

Abstract:
Solanum surattense is phenotypically highly polymorphic species. This polymorphism adds difficulty to identification of lower order taxa of this species. The present study was carried out to find morphological, biochemical and molecular markers for the proper identification of various lower taxa of Solanum surattense. Herbarium and fresh samples were subjected to morphological, biochemical and molecular studies. The present investigation suggested a new variety of Solanum surattense. The distinguishing morphological markers of S. surattense var. awanicum are white colour of flower, 4-5 stamens, green colour anthers and stellate hairs on style and ovary. The variety showed marked biochemical and molecular difference from the type species. A new varietyof Solanum surattense has been proposed as Solanum surattense var. awanicum Zubaida Yousaf &Mir Ajab Khan.

2008

Leaf Epidermal Anatomy of Selected Allium Species, Family Alliaceae from Pakistan
Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2008, 40(1): 77-90
Yousaf, Z., Shinwari, Z.K., Asghar, R. and Parveen, A.

Abstract:
Leaf epidermal anatomy of the selected Allium species showed variation in size and shape of stomatal cells, stomatal cavity, micro and macro hairs, trichomes, silica bodies and long cells. Leaf epidermal anatomy prooved a significant tool for the resolution of taxonomic confusions of the Allium species. Allium consanguineum had most diverse leaf epidermal anatomy. This species had longest stomatal cells (6-14 μm) and silca bodies (6-14 μm). Presence of micro hairs is an important distinguishing character for A. carolianum, the length of micro hairs varies from 150-200 μm. Only dumb-bell shaped silica bodies were observed in 6 different species viz., A. dolichostylum, A. borszczewii, A. micranthum, A. consanguinem, A. stocksianum and A. stoliczki. Trichomes were present in A. barszczewksi, A. borszczowii, A. micranthum, A. lamondae, A. miserbile, A. longicollum, A. gilli and A. dolichostylum, Cluster analysis based on anatomica lcharacters revealed that 18 species of the genus Allium were divided into 2 main clusters at the phylogenetic distance of 79%. Lower order classification of the genus Allium on the basis of anatomical characters is entirely different from morphological classification

Evaluation of Taxonomic Status of Medicinal Species of the Genus Hyoscyamous, Withania, Atropa and Datura Based on PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2008, 40(6): 2289-2297
Yousaf, Z., Masood, S., Shinwari, Z.K, Khan, M.A. and Rabani, A.

Abstract:
Seed protein profile of 42 accessions belonging to 7 species of 4 different genera (Datura, Hyoscyamus, Withania and Atropa) from the family Solanaceae were investigated through PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. Intra and inter specific relationship was estimated using Jaccard’s similarity index. A dendrogram based on UPGMA revealed the generic status and inter relationship of Hyoscyamus, Atropa, Withania and Datura. The specimens of Withania somnifera collected from Panjgur (109717, 109718, and 109710) not only showed the variation morphologically but also based on protein profiles. These specimens have the allelic variation at band of 66, 64 50, 42, 22 and 16 Kda. This accession is also geographically different from the rest of specimens of W. somnifera. These differences are enough to give it the rank of sub species of W. somnifera. Based on the total seed protein profile close association is found between Withania/Datura and Atropa/Hyoscyamaus but they maintain their generic status, as there is no intermixing of species was observed. The present study provides useful information for the identification of the taxa, their relationship and the delimitation of their taxonomic status.

2007

Taxonomic Reflections on the Parasitic Angiosperms of Pakistan
Phytologia, 2007, 89(3): 339-348
Athar, M., Chaudhary, A.H., Yousaf, Z. and Shabbir, S.M.
 
Abstract: This is the first comprehensive listing of the flowering parasitic plants of Pakistan. A total of 50 plant species in 13 genera belonging to five plant families are reported from Pakistan. The largest number of parasitic plants are in Orobanchaceae (25 species) followed by Cuscutaceae (17 species). Scrophulariaceae had four species, Loranthaceae three and Balanophoraceae one. The majority of these parasitic plants occur in northern areas of Pakistan and Kashmir. Six species were found in Balochistan, and only two in Sindh. All the species of Scrophulariaceae, except Centranthera hispida, were found either in hilly areas or in the salt range.

2006

Evaluation of Taxonomic Status of Medicinal Species of the Genus Solanum and Capsicum Based on Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2006, 38(1): 99-106
 Yousaf, Z., Masood, S., Shinwari, Z.K, Khan, M.A. and Rabani, A.

Abstract: Seed protein profiles of 54 accessions belonging to 11 species of 2 different genera (Solanum and Capsicum) of the family Solanaceae were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Intra and inter specific relationship was estimated using Jaccard’s similarity index. A dendrogram based on UPGMA revealed the generic status of Solanum and Capsicum. S. surattense with white flowers showed variation from the S. surattense with purple flowers not only morphologically but also based on protein profiles. However the high similarity index (82%) between them indicates that S. surattense (W) should be separated from S. surattense (P) as variety nova. S. nigrum and S. americanum are two distinct species, whereas S. villosum is the subspecies of S. nigrum. Similarity index of S. villosum and S. americanum was 53 % whereas it has similarity of 78% with S. nigrum. Similarity was 41% between S. nigrum and S. americanum. Based on the total seed protein profile, the genus Solanum can be divided into two sub genera. The distribution of species in these two subgenera is contrary to conventional classification. The present study provides useful information for the identification of the taxa, their relationship and the delimitation of their taxonomic status.

2004

Can Complexity of the Genus Allium L., be Resolved through some Numerical Techniques?
Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2004, 36(3): 487-501
Yousaf, Z., Shinwari, Z.K, Qureshi, R.A., Khan, M.A., and Gilani, S.S.

Abstract: Allium L., is the largest genus of petaloid monocotyledons except orchids, with 750 species all over the world and 46 species in Pakistan. Numerical techniques were used to study the taxonomic relationship of the Allium L., from Pakistan. Both vegetative and reproductive characters were taken into account. Bulb plays a major role in identification of various species of this genus. A. fedtschenkoanum Regel and A. semonovii Regel are quite confusing but can be separated on the basis of outer tunic nature, scape length and floral characters. Tepals colour of A. fedtschenkoanum Regel is yellow and A. semenovii Regel has double coloured tepals, yellow above and red below. A. baluchistanicum Wendelbo is a rare species in Pakistan because it was recorded only once from Quetta in 1966. A. lilacinum Royle ex Regel was previously reported from Pakistan, but no herbarium specimen was available to verify the report. A. jacquemontii Kunth showed confusion with A. przewalskianum Regel, A. griffithianum Boiss., and A. roylei Stearn. Differentiation between A. griffithianum Boiss and A. jacquemontii Kunth can be made by using characters of scape and flowers. Some taxonomists recognized A. roylei Stearn and A. rubellum L., as separate species. Our results revealed that both are conspecific. A. rubellum L., is a synonym of A. roylei Stearn. This species is closely related to A. griffithianum Boiss and A. jacquemontii Kunth. A. longicupis Regel is a new record and for the first time reported from Pakistan. This species has pink flower, glabrous leaf sheath and the inflorescence is a bulbiferous umbel. It is closely related to A. roylei Stearn.

Medicinally important flora of dhibbia karsal village (Mianwali district Punjab)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2004, 3(6): 757-762
 Yousaf, Z., Shinwari, Z.K. and Ali, S.M.

Abstract: Mianwali is the part of Salt range, which is considered as the field museum of the Pakistan. Medicinal and economically important, naturally occurring species of the Dhibbia Karsal Village were surveyed on the basis of the perception of local people. The local communities are extremely knowledgeable about the local plants but unfortunately this knowledge is going to be lost as a traditional culture is disappearing. Plants of thirty-eight different species belonging to different families of angiosperm having medicinal importance. Due to the salinity of the soil dominating species are perennial. Olea ferruginea Royle and Acacia modesta are two medicinally important characteristic trees of this area. Olea ferruginea due to extensive cutting and grazing has become rare species of the area. Solanum nigrum, S. villosum, S. americanum and S. surattense are common species of the area and exhibit great diversity in morphology. These species use commonly as the painkiller. They are very good source of tropane alkaloids. A trend of change in vegetation from forest to scrub and then to a treeless grassy area was observed. Factors responsible for loss of species diversity are mainly biotic and salinity of the soil.

2002


Leaf Epidermal Anatomy of Selected Dzgztarza Species, Tribe Paniceae, Family Poaceae of Pakistan
Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2002, 34(3): 257-273
Gilani, S.S., Khan, M.A., Shinwari, Z.A. and Yousaf, Z.

Abstract: Anatomical studies &both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of leaf epidermis of the selected Digitaria species showed variations in size and shapes of prickles, short cells, silica bodies, microhairs with basal and distal cells, hooks, stomates and long cells. Leaf epidermal anatomy was found to be an important tool for identification of Digitaria spp. The average lengths of the organelles of leaf epidermises were more clear difference between the species than considering their full ranges of length and breadth. Cross shaped silica bodies were found in D. abludens (av. length less than 15 pm), D. setigera and D. violascerls (av, length less than 20 pm), dumb-bell to cross shaped in D. tzodosa and D. sarlgriirlalis ssp. vrilguris var. glabra while dumb-bell shaped in D. ciliaris, D. ischaemutn and D. radicosa. The comparative lengths of distal cell and basal cell of microhairs i.e., shorter, longer or equal to each other, were found to be useful in identifying Digitariu spp. Basal cell was longer than the distal cell of microhairs in D. abluderls, it was equal to the distal cell in D. nodosa and shorter than the distal cell in D. sanguinalis and D. ciliaris. Low or tall domed shaped, parallel and triangular subsidiary cells were also observed to be helpful in identification. Cross shaped silica bodies were found in D. abludetzs, D. setigeru and D. violascens, dumb-bell to cross shaped in D. riodosa and D. sar~guiriuliss ubsp. vrilgaris var. glubra while dumb-bell shape in D. ciliaris, D. ischuenlurn and D. radicosa.

Chemistry

2011

Quantitative Analysis of Flavonols in the Peels of Fruits by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2011, 10(6):2331-2336
Taskeen, A., Naeem, I. and Iqbal, S.

Abstract: Flavonoids are compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Six fruits were selected for the study. These fruits were purchased from the local market in Jan 2009. Flavonol contents were analyzed using reversed-phase HPLC using acidified acetonitrile (50%) as mobile phase. A comparative study of amounts of flavonols present in different fruit peels was carried out. The purpose of this study was to analyze the better extraction condition for the utilization of fruit peels as new source of flavonols. The overall comparison was also made between three types of extractive solvents. The best solvent for the extraction of flvonols from the fruit peels under study was aqueous methanol (80:20).

Assay of Flavonoid Aglycones with HPLC in Four Species of genus Hypericum
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011, 5(9):1526-1530
Saddiqe, Z., Naeem, I., Maimoona, A., Sautreau, A. and Hellio, C.

Abstract: Hypericum plants are widely used in phytotherapy in many countries. A number of plants of this genus have exhibited various pharmacological activities attributed to their flavonoid content. The present paper describes a reverse-phase HPLC method developed for the assay of 7 flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, myricetin, isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin and apigenin) in polar extracts of four Hypericum species from UK, Hypericum androsaemum, L., Hypericum ericoides, Arechav, Hypericum x moserianum (Hypericum calycinum x Hypericum patulum) Andrê and Hypericum olympicum, L. The identity of detected flavonoids was confirmed by comparing their retention times with those of corresponding standards. The content of detected flavonoids varied from 816.69 (mg/Kg fresh wt.) in Hypericum moserianum to 6726.52 (mg/Kg fresh wt.) in Hypericum olympicum. Quercetin and apigenin were present in all the species while myricetin and kaempferol were detected only in H. moserianum.
 
Analysis of Total Flavonoids and Phenolics in Different Fractions of Bark and Needle Extracts of Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011, 5(13), 2724-2728
Maimoona, A., Naeem, I., Saddiqe, Z., Ali, N., Ahmed, G. and Shah, I.
 
Abstract: Total flavonoid and phenolic content was estimated quantitatively by using colorimetric method in various fractions of bark and needle extracts of Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana. Flavonoids may exist as free aglycone, but usually they are bound to sugar as glycosides and any one aglycone may occur in single plant in several combinations. For the measurement of total flavonoid content, original plant extract was hydrolysed and aglycone was measured before and after hydrolysis to calculate the presence of free aglycone content. Flavonoid contents (aglycone) of the extracts, in terms of quercetin equivalent (the standard curve equation: y = 0.0877x -0.0595, r2 = 0.9981), were in the range of 60.1 ± 4.5 to 484 ± 2.5 before and after hydrolysis. As such, the values fell in the range of 76.9 ± 3.2 to 943 ± 2.6. The total phenol varied from 394 + 0.03 to 1331 + 0.24 measured in terms of gallic acid equivalent (with standard equation: y = 0.0197x-0.0076, r2 = 0.9997).
 
A Review on Biological, Nutraceutical and Clinical Aspects of French Maritime Pine Bark Extract
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2011, 133(2):261-77
Maimoona, A., Naeem, I., Saddiqe, Z. and Jameel K.

Abstract: Bark extract of Pinus pinaster has a long history of ethnomedicinal use and is available commercially as herbal dietary supplement with proprietary name pycnogenol. It is used as a food supplement to overcome many degenerative disorders. Rohdewald (2002) wrote the first comprehensive review of extract highlighting its antioxidative nature and its role in different diseases. Later, Watson (2003) and Gulati (2005) in their reviews about cardiovascular health, described the extract as a best neutraceutical agent in this regard. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on this extract in terms of extraction methods, its pharmacological, toxicological and nutraceutical effects and clinical studies. Web sites of Google Scholar, Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from 2006 to 2009 and sixty-nine research articles were extracted. Of these, two are about extraction advancement and analysis while the rest relate to its clinical, biological and nutraceutical aspects.

Comparison of Radical Scavenging Capacity of Different Extracts of Barks and Needles of Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana
Journal of Asian Chem., 2011, 23(2): 819-822
Maimoona, A., Naeem,I., Shujaat, S., Saddiqe, Z., Mughal, T. and Mehmood, T.

Abstract: In this paper, the comparative study of antioxidant activities exhibited by different extracts of bark and niddles of Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana were evaluated. Polar and nonpolar extracts were obtained by fractionating the crude methanolic extracts of bark and needles of each plants with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate and butanol, respectively leaving aqueous fractions behind. Activity of each sample was evaluatd using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic and total flavonid contents of each sample were assessed. Correlation between DPPH scavenging potential (IC50) and total phenolic content is not so strong and is found to be positive only in case of PrB (r2 = 0.3602) fractions while correlation between scavenging percentage and total flavonoids is positive in PrN, PwN and PrB fractions. However, fractions exhibiting best antioxidant potential are rich in both flavonoids and phenolics and these fractions are polar i.e. ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions.

2010

Analysis of Bisphenol A in Blood and Urine Samples: A Mini Review

Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(5): 4136-4140
Taskeen, A. and Naeem, I.

Abstract: Bisphenol A is constantly discharged at trace levels in food packed in metal cans with PVC linings. This is also present in bottled water. This represents a cause for concern because of potential effects of bisphenol A to human health. We compiled data on the methods used for analysis of bisphenol A in blood and urine samples published in the last 10 years.

Antibacterial and Synergistic Studies of Salsola kali
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, 2010, 1(2): 18-26
Mughal, T., Naeem, I., Aziz, M.T. and Ahsan, A.
 
Abstract: Salsola kali is an annual herb, found near the Bahawalpur (Cholistan desert) South Punjab, Pakistan. Extract of aerial part of the plant in methanol was tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans and Sarcina lutae. Methanol was found to be best antimicrobial solvent. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of methanolic extract was determined and found to be bactericidal in concentration of 0.5 µg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans. Synergistic antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested with respective solvent extracts of aerial parts of the Heliotropium strigosum, Galium asperuloides and Senecio chrysanthemoides synergistically showed best antibacterial activity against all the bacteria (0.5 µg/ml). The extract of Salsola kali and the methanolic extract of Galium asperuloides showed best activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans (0.5µg/ml). Synergistically Salsola kali with Senecio chrysanthemoides showed best activity against all the bacterial strains (0.5µg/ml) except S. lutae and S. mutans . Salsola kali with Heliotropium strigosum showed best activity against E. coli, S. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, S. lutae and S. mutans (0.5µg/ml) and inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Synergistic Antibacterial Studies of Heliotropium sterigosum
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, 2010, 1(2): 27-36
Mughal, T., Naeem, I., Qureshi, S. and Abass, A.
 
Abstract: Heliotropium sterigosum is an annual herb found in south Punjab of Pakistan. Extract of whole plant in methanol was tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilus, and Sarcina lutae. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of methanolic extract was determined and found to be bactericidal in concentration of 1000 µg/ml against streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Synergistic antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested with respective solvent extracts of seeds of Withania coagulans, whole plant of Hypericum perforatum and Pinus roxburgii (bark). Staphylococcus aureus was synergistically inhibited by methanolic extract of Heliotropium sterigosum and Pinus roxburgii (bark) (1µg/ml) and Withania coagulans (1µg/ml). Methanolic extract of Heliotropium sterigosum inhibits the growth of Sarcina lutae in combination with Pinus roxburgii (bark) methanolic extract (0.5µg/ml). Highest synergistic activity was observed by Heliotropium sterigosum and Withania coagulans methanolic extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.5µg/ml) and Bacillus subtilus (1µg/ml).
 
Characterization of Flavonols Present in Barks and Needles of Pinus wallichiana and Pinus roxburghii
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22 (1):41-44
Naeem, I., Taskeen, A., Mubeen, H. and Maimoona, A.

Abstract: Flavonoids are a diverse group of natural products found in all plants. In present study five flavonols namely quecetin, kampherol, rhamnetin, isorhamnetin and myrcetin were identified and estimated in Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana bark and needles extracts in different solvents. Study was carried out on acid hydrolyzed methanolic extracts which was further fractionated into diethyl ether, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts. Quercetin was found to be the most abundant flavonol present in Pinus wallichiana and Pinus roxburghii barks and needles. Myrcetin was not present in Pinus wallichiana needles while. Rhamnetin was only present in Pinus wallichiana bark.

Analysis of Flavonoid and Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Hypericum perforatum
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(5): 3596-3600
Naeem, I., Saddiqe, Z., Patel, A. and Hellio, C.

Abstract: Ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts of Hypericum perforatum were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for their flavonoid content by RP-HPLC. The components were detected by comparison with authentic standards of five flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, isorhamnetin, rhamnetin and kaempferol) and a flavone (luteolin). Quercetin and myricetin were present in all the three fractions while kaempferol was present only in n-butanol fraction. Isorhamnetin, rhamnetin and luteolin were not detected in the extracts. The total sum of detected flavonoids was highest in n-butanol fraction (8031.25 mg/kg fresh wt.) followed by ethyl acetate (4805.13 mg/kg fresh wt.) and methanol (4720.00 mg/kg fresh wt.). The extracts were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sarcina lutae and Escherichia coli. The total extracts were tested at concentrations of 1, 10, 25 and 50 µg/µL. In vitro antibacterial studies were carried out in 96-well microplates. The n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts were inactive against all the tested organisms at all experimental concentrations.The n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed activity against all the tested bacterial strains at concentrations of 25 and 50 µg/µL while the methanolic extract was only active against B. subtilus at concentrations 25 and 50 µg/µL.

Characterization of Heavy Metals in Extracts of Hypericum Medicinal Plant by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(6): 4387-4392
Naeem, I., Mubeen, H. and Saddiqe, Z.

Abstract: Heavy metals ion contents (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and Co) in methanolic extracts of five species of Hypercum plant were studied. Two Pakistani species, Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum oblangifolium and three UK species, Hypericum olympicum, Hypericum moserarum and Hypericum androsaemum were analyzed for metal content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of Pb and Ni was high in Pakistani species as compared to UK species. The highest concentration of Cr was found in Hypericum perforatum (Pak) while minimum concentration was found in Hypericum moserarum (UK). The highest mean value of copper was found in Hypericum olympicum (UK) followed by Hypericum perforatum (Pak). There was a little variation in case of Cd and Co while highest mean value of Fe content was found in Hypericum androsaemum (UK). However overall level of heavy metal content in the extracts of all the species under study was well below the critical limit.

A Review of the Antibacterial Activity of Hypericum perforatum L.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010, 131 (3):511-21
Saddiqe, Z., Naeem, I. and Maimoona, A.

Abstract: Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is a perennial herb that is commonly known as St. John's Wort. The plant has been valued for its important biological and chemical perspectives and its use in the treatment of infectious diseases has been documented in ethnobotanical reports. Most recent interest in H. perforatum has focused on its antidepressant effects, and only recently has its antimicrobial activity been evaluated against a number of bacterial and fungal strains. The present review gives a comprehensive summary of the ethnobotanical uses, chemical constituents and biological effects (antibacterial and antifungal) of this species. A comprehensive account of the chemical constituents including anthraquinone derivatives (naphthodianthrones), flavonoids, prenylated phloroglucinols, tannins and volatile oils is also included. Various types of preparations, ointments, creams and extracts prepared with and compounds isolated from this species have been found to possess a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects such as antidepressant effects, wound-healing, antiviral and antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts can be related to the use of the herb as a wound healer in ancient times. The sole antibacterial principle isolated to date is a tetraketone, hyperforin, also thought to be responsible for the antidepressant activity of the herb. The available literature indicates that it has a higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria, and alcoholic extracts (methanolic/ethanolic) were shown to possess more pronounced activity than aqueous extracts. Based on the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of H. perforatum, we concluded that this species has beneficial therapeutic properties and has the potential for use as an effective adaptogenic herbal remedy.

A Comparative Study of Flavonoids in Fruits and Vegetables with their Products using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC)
Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010, 9 (8): 1372-1377
Taskeen, A., Naeem, I., Bakhtawar, S. and Mehmood, T.

Abstract: Flavonoids are found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Tomato, onion, garlic, green chilies and potato were selected for the study as these are important ingredients in food in Pakistan. Almost all of these vegetables are used in routine food. Mango, pine apple, grewia asiatica, strawberries and orange were also studied for their flavonoid content because these fruits are considered to be a part of healthy food and also these are easily available in Pakistan. Products of these fruits and vegetables available in local markets were analyzed so as to make a comparison with fresh ones. Garlic paste, onion paste, chili paste, tomato ketchup and potato chips were used to make comparison with vegetables. Grewia asiatica juice, mango and strawberry jam, pine apple juice and tang orange were used for fruits. Six flavonoids ( quercetin, luteolin myricetin, kaempferol, rhamnetin and isorhamnetin) were used as standards. Analysis was carried out on HPLC in acidified 50% water: acetonitrile system at 30 °c and 254 nm. Highest flavonoids in case of fresh vegetables fruits and were present in tomato (183.08 mg\kg) and strawberries (80.0 mg\kg) respectively. While in case of preserved products in strawberry jam (85.0 mg\kg) and garlic paste (177.0 mg\kg) respectively. This simply means that in case of tomatoes flavonoid content decreased due to processing but in case of strawberry jam flavonoid content increased due additives rich in flavonoids. Similarly, garlic paste contained highest flavonoid content in selected products. The objective of study was to analyze whether fresh fruits and vegetables or their products are rich in flavonoids, so, that we could have healthy food. So this study is very helpful in deciding about healthy food.

Phytoremediation of Cu (II) by Calotropis Procera Roots
New York Science Journal, 2010, 3(3):1-5
Mubeen, H., Naeem, I. and Taskeen, A.
 
Abstract: The discharge of heavy metals into aquatic environment has become a matter of concern in Pakistan over the last few decades. These pollutants are introduced into the aquatic systems significantly as result of various industrial operations. Cu (II) is a priority pollutant and has been documented to be harmful to fauna, flora and human beings. The aim of the present study was to utilize the locally available wild plant material for Cu (II) removal from industrial waste water. The wastewater containing Cu (II) was treated with biomass prepared from roots of Calotropis procera, a wild abundant plant. These studies were carried out in order to determine some operational parameters of Cu (II) sorption such as the time required for the metal-biosorbent equilibrium, the effect of change in biomass quantity and effect of contact time on percentage removal of copper. It was found that a time of one hour was sufficient to attain equilibrium. It was concluded that adsorbent prepared from Calotropis procera roots can be used for treatment of heavy metals in waste waters.

Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Calotropis Procera Roots in a Fixed-Bed Column
Report and Opinion, 2010, 2(11):22-26
Mubeen, H., Naeem, I. and Taskeen, A.

 Abstract: The biosorption of lead was investigated with a biomass of Calotropis procera roots, in a fixed-bed column. The effect of operating parameters such as inlet metal ion concentration, amount of biomass packed and flow rate on the sorption characteristics of Calotropis procera roots was investigated. The data confirmed that the total amount of sorbed Pb (II) and equilibrium Pb (II) uptake decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing inlet lead concentration, and amount of biomass packed. The breakthrough data obtained for lead was adequately described by the Thomas adsorption model. The amounts of metal adsorbed per unit weight of biosorbent were 2.83mgg-1, 2.79mgg-1 and 2.23mgg-1 respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were easily eluted from column using 0.05N nitric acid. Results indicated that lead was efficiently recovered by the biomass.

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Withania coagulans
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(1): 122-126
Bakhtawar, S., Mughal, T. and Naeem, I.
 
Abstract: The present research reports the chemical composition of the essential oil of Withania coagulans extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The chromatographic analysis of this essential oil showed 20 compounds, representing 90.80 % of the total oil constituents. The oil contains a complex mixture consisting of sesquiterpenes, esters, acids, alkanes and aldehyde. It was dominated by sesquiterpenes (54 %) and esters (21.50 %) while alkanes, acids and aldehydes were only present in small percentage (9.11, 5.5 and 0.32 %, respectively). Thus carophyllene is present with highest percentage and allene is present with lowest percentage.

Determination of Heavy Metal Contents of Some over the Counter Staple Food Items
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(4): 2861-2868
Naeem, I., Mubeen, H. and Taskeen, A.

Abstract: The contents of some heavy metals i.e. iron, copper, chromium, lead, cadmium and cobalt were determined in some over the counter food items by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pulses, rice, wheat and their processed products contribute to a major portion of daily food intake by a very large segment of population of Pakistan. There was variation in metal contents in the same kind of variety purchased from different food stores which can be attributed to the soil conditions, water sources, manure and pesticides and processes used. The concentration of Fe (II) ranged from 78-118 mg kg-1 on dry weight basis, where as that of Cu (II) ranged from 9.0-21.5 mg kg-1. The concentration level of Cr (III) was from 115.0-368.0 mg kg-1. While concentration of Co (II) and Cd (II) and Pb (II) varied slightly from sample to sample and ranged between 11.5- 15.0 mg kg-1, 0.5-2.0 mg kg-1 and 1.1-1.5 mg kg-1, respectively. Daily intake limits were calculated and compared with MRL (minimum risk level) values given by ATSDR (2001). Results showed that the concentrations of Cr (III) and Pb (II) of all samples under study were much higher than those of MRL values. Thus intake of these food items in excessive amounts can cause accumulation of these hazardous metals in the body and pose a great health risk.

Analysis of Bisphenol A in Canned Food: A Mini Review
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(5): 4133-4135
Taskeen, A. and Naeem, I.

Abstract: Bisphenol A is constantly discharged at trace levels in food packed in metal cans with PVC lining. This represents a cause for concern because of potential effects of bisphenol A to human health. In this paper, the authors compiled data on the methods used for analysis of bisphenol A in canned food published in the last ten years.


Analysis of Bisphenol A in Blood and Urine Samples: A Mini Review
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(5): 4136-4140
Taskeen, A. and Naeem, I.

Abstract: Bisphenol A is constantly discharged at trace levels in food packed in metal cans with PVC linings. This is also present in bottled water. This represents a cause for concern because of potential effects of bisphenol A to human health. We compiled data on the methods used for analysis of bisphenol A in blood and urine samples published in the last 10 years.

Antibacterial and Synergistic Studies of Salsola kali
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, 2010, 1(2): 18-26
Mughal, T., Naeem, I., Aziz, M.T. and Ahsan, A.
 
Abstract: Salsola kali is an annual herb, found near the Bahawalpur (Cholistan desert) South Punjab, Pakistan. Extract of aerial part of the plant in methanol was tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans and Sarcina lutae. Methanol was found to be best antimicrobial solvent. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of methanolic extract was determined and found to be bactericidal in concentration of 0.5 µg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans. Synergistic antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested with respective solvent extracts of aerial parts of the Heliotropium strigosum, Galium asperuloides and Senecio chrysanthemoides synergistically showed best antibacterial activity against all the bacteria (0.5 µg/ml). The extract of Salsola kali and the methanolic extract of Galium asperuloides showed best activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans (0.5µg/ml). Synergistically Salsola kali with Senecio chrysanthemoides showed best activity against all the bacterial strains (0.5µg/ml) except S. lutae and S. mutans . Salsola kali with Heliotropium strigosum showed best activity against E. coli, S. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, S. lutae and S. mutans (0.5µg/ml) and inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Synergistic Antibacterial Studies of Heliotropium sterigosum
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, 2010, 1(2): 27-36
Mughal, T., Naeem, I., Qureshi, S. and Abass, A.
 
Abstract: Heliotropium sterigosum is an annual herb found in south Punjab of Pakistan. Extract of whole plant in methanol was tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilus, and Sarcina lutae. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of methanolic extract was determined and found to be bactericidal in concentration of 1000 µg/ml against streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Synergistic antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested with respective solvent extracts of seeds of Withania coagulans, whole plant of Hypericum perforatum and Pinus roxburgii (bark). Staphylococcus aureus was synergistically inhibited by methanolic extract of Heliotropium sterigosum and Pinus roxburgii (bark) (1µg/ml) and Withania coagulans (1µg/ml). Methanolic extract of Heliotropium sterigosum inhibits the growth of Sarcina lutae in combination with Pinus roxburgii (bark) methanolic extract (0.5µg/ml). Highest synergistic activity was observed by Heliotropium sterigosum and Withania coagulans methanolic extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.5µg/ml) and Bacillus subtilus (1µg/ml).
 
Characterization of Flavonols Present in Barks and Needles of Pinus wallichiana and Pinus roxburghii
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22 (1):41-44
Naeem, I., Taskeen, A., Mubeen, H. and Maimoona, A.

Abstract: Flavonoids are a diverse group of natural products found in all plants. In present study five flavonols namely quecetin, kampherol, rhamnetin, isorhamnetin and myrcetin were identified and estimated in Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana bark and needles extracts in different solvents. Study was carried out on acid hydrolyzed methanolic extracts which was further fractionated into diethyl ether, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts. Quercetin was found to be the most abundant flavonol present in Pinus wallichiana and Pinus roxburghii barks and needles. Myrcetin was not present in Pinus wallichiana needles while. Rhamnetin was only present in Pinus wallichiana bark.

Analysis of Flavonoid and Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Hypericum perforatum
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(5): 3596-3600
Naeem, I., Saddiqe, Z., Patel, A. and Hellio, C.

Abstract: Ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts of Hypericum perforatum were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for their flavonoid content by RP-HPLC. The components were detected by comparison with authentic standards of five flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, isorhamnetin, rhamnetin and kaempferol) and a flavone (luteolin). Quercetin and myricetin were present in all the three fractions while kaempferol was present only in n-butanol fraction. Isorhamnetin, rhamnetin and luteolin were not detected in the extracts. The total sum of detected flavonoids was highest in n-butanol fraction (8031.25 mg/kg fresh wt.) followed by ethyl acetate (4805.13 mg/kg fresh wt.) and methanol (4720.00 mg/kg fresh wt.). The extracts were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sarcina lutae and Escherichia coli. The total extracts were tested at concentrations of 1, 10, 25 and 50 µg/µL. In vitro antibacterial studies were carried out in 96-well microplates. The n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts were inactive against all the tested organisms at all experimental concentrations.The n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed activity against all the tested bacterial strains at concentrations of 25 and 50 µg/µL while the methanolic extract was only active against B. subtilus at concentrations 25 and 50 µg/µL.

Characterization of Heavy Metals in Extracts of Hypericum Medicinal Plant by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(6): 4387-4392
Naeem, I., Mubeen, H. and Saddiqe, Z.

Abstract: Heavy metals ion contents (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and Co) in methanolic extracts of five species of Hypercum plant were studied. Two Pakistani species, Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum oblangifolium and three UK species, Hypericum olympicum, Hypericum moserarum and Hypericum androsaemum were analyzed for metal content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of Pb and Ni was high in Pakistani species as compared to UK species. The highest concentration of Cr was found in Hypericum perforatum (Pak) while minimum concentration was found in Hypericum moserarum (UK). The highest mean value of copper was found in Hypericum olympicum (UK) followed by Hypericum perforatum (Pak). There was a little variation in case of Cd and Co while highest mean value of Fe content was found in Hypericum androsaemum (UK). However overall level of heavy metal content in the extracts of all the species under study was well below the critical limit.

A Review of the Antibacterial Activity of Hypericum perforatum L.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010, 131 (3):511-21
Saddiqe, Z., Naeem, I. and Maimoona, A.

Abstract: Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is a perennial herb that is commonly known as St. John's Wort. The plant has been valued for its important biological and chemical perspectives and its use in the treatment of infectious diseases has been documented in ethnobotanical reports. Most recent interest in H. perforatum has focused on its antidepressant effects, and only recently has its antimicrobial activity been evaluated against a number of bacterial and fungal strains. The present review gives a comprehensive summary of the ethnobotanical uses, chemical constituents and biological effects (antibacterial and antifungal) of this species. A comprehensive account of the chemical constituents including anthraquinone derivatives (naphthodianthrones), flavonoids, prenylated phloroglucinols, tannins and volatile oils is also included. Various types of preparations, ointments, creams and extracts prepared with and compounds isolated from this species have been found to possess a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects such as antidepressant effects, wound-healing, antiviral and antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts can be related to the use of the herb as a wound healer in ancient times. The sole antibacterial principle isolated to date is a tetraketone, hyperforin, also thought to be responsible for the antidepressant activity of the herb. The available literature indicates that it has a higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria, and alcoholic extracts (methanolic/ethanolic) were shown to possess more pronounced activity than aqueous extracts. Based on the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of H. perforatum, we concluded that this species has beneficial therapeutic properties and has the potential for use as an effective adaptogenic herbal remedy.

A Comparative Study of Flavonoids in Fruits and Vegetables with their Products using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC)
Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010, 9 (8): 1372-1377
Taskeen, A., Naeem, I., Bakhtawar, S. and Mehmood, T.

Abstract: Flavonoids are found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Tomato, onion, garlic, green chilies and potato were selected for the study as these are important ingredients in food in Pakistan. Almost all of these vegetables are used in routine food. Mango, pine apple, grewia asiatica, strawberries and orange were also studied for their flavonoid content because these fruits are considered to be a part of healthy food and also these are easily available in Pakistan. Products of these fruits and vegetables available in local markets were analyzed so as to make a comparison with fresh ones. Garlic paste, onion paste, chili paste, tomato ketchup and potato chips were used to make comparison with vegetables. Grewia asiatica juice, mango and strawberry jam, pine apple juice and tang orange were used for fruits. Six flavonoids ( quercetin, luteolin myricetin, kaempferol, rhamnetin and isorhamnetin) were used as standards. Analysis was carried out on HPLC in acidified 50% water: acetonitrile system at 30 °c and 254 nm. Highest flavonoids in case of fresh vegetables fruits and were present in tomato (183.08 mg\kg) and strawberries (80.0 mg\kg) respectively. While in case of preserved products in strawberry jam (85.0 mg\kg) and garlic paste (177.0 mg\kg) respectively. This simply means that in case of tomatoes flavonoid content decreased due to processing but in case of strawberry jam flavonoid content increased due additives rich in flavonoids. Similarly, garlic paste contained highest flavonoid content in selected products. The objective of study was to analyze whether fresh fruits and vegetables or their products are rich in flavonoids, so, that we could have healthy food. So this study is very helpful in deciding about healthy food.

Phytoremediation of Cu (II) by Calotropis Procera Roots
New York Science Journal, 2010, 3(3):1-5
Mubeen, H., Naeem, I. and Taskeen, A.
 
Abstract: The discharge of heavy metals into aquatic environment has become a matter of concern in Pakistan over the last few decades. These pollutants are introduced into the aquatic systems significantly as result of various industrial operations. Cu (II) is a priority pollutant and has been documented to be harmful to fauna, flora and human beings. The aim of the present study was to utilize the locally available wild plant material for Cu (II) removal from industrial waste water. The wastewater containing Cu (II) was treated with biomass prepared from roots of Calotropis procera, a wild abundant plant. These studies were carried out in order to determine some operational parameters of Cu (II) sorption such as the time required for the metal-biosorbent equilibrium, the effect of change in biomass quantity and effect of contact time on percentage removal of copper. It was found that a time of one hour was sufficient to attain equilibrium. It was concluded that adsorbent prepared from Calotropis procera roots can be used for treatment of heavy metals in waste waters.

Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Calotropis Procera Roots in a Fixed-Bed Column
Report and Opinion, 2010, 2(11):22-26
Mubeen, H., Naeem, I. and Taskeen, A.

Abstract: The biosorption of lead was investigated with a biomass of Calotropis procera roots, in a fixed-bed column. The effect of operating parameters such as inlet metal ion concentration, amount of biomass packed and flow rate on the sorption characteristics of Calotropis procera roots was investigated. The data confirmed that the total amount of sorbed Pb (II) and equilibrium Pb (II) uptake decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing inlet lead concentration, and amount of biomass packed. The breakthrough data obtained for lead was adequately described by the Thomas adsorption model. The amounts of metal adsorbed per unit weight of biosorbent were 2.83mgg-1, 2.79mgg-1 and 2.23mgg-1 respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were easily eluted from column using 0.05N nitric acid. Results indicated that lead was efficiently recovered by the biomass.

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Withania coagulans
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(1): 122-126
Bakhtawar, S., Mughal, T. and Naeem, I.
 
Abstract: The present research reports the chemical composition of the essential oil of Withania coagulans extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The chromatographic analysis of this essential oil showed 20 compounds, representing 90.80 % of the total oil constituents. The oil contains a complex mixture consisting of sesquiterpenes, esters, acids, alkanes and aldehyde. It was dominated by sesquiterpenes (54 %) and esters (21.50 %) while alkanes, acids and aldehydes were only present in small percentage (9.11, 5.5 and 0.32 %, respectively). Thus carophyllene is present with highest percentage and allene is present with lowest percentage.

Determination of Heavy Metal Contents of Some over the Counter Staple Food Items
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(4): 2861-2868
Naeem, I., Mubeen, H. and Taskeen, A.

Abstract: The contents of some heavy metals i.e. iron, copper, chromium, lead, cadmium and cobalt were determined in some over the counter food items by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pulses, rice, wheat and their processed products contribute to a major portion of daily food intake by a very large segment of population of Pakistan. There was variation in metal contents in the same kind of variety purchased from different food stores which can be attributed to the soil conditions, water sources, manure and pesticides and processes used. The concentration of Fe (II) ranged from 78-118 mg kg-1 on dry weight basis, where as that of Cu (II) ranged from 9.0-21.5 mg kg-1. The concentration level of Cr (III) was from 115.0-368.0 mg kg-1. While concentration of Co (II) and Cd (II) and Pb (II) varied slightly from sample to sample and ranged between 11.5- 15.0 mg kg-1, 0.5-2.0 mg kg-1 and 1.1-1.5 mg kg-1, respectively. Daily intake limits were calculated and compared with MRL (minimum risk level) values given by ATSDR (2001). Results showed that the concentrations of Cr (III) and Pb (II) of all samples under study were much higher than those of MRL values. Thus intake of these food items in excessive amounts can cause accumulation of these hazardous metals in the body and pose a great health risk.

Analysis of Bisphenol A in Canned Food: A Mini Review
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 22(5): 4133-4135
Taskeen, A. and Naeem, I.

Abstract: Bisphenol A is constantly discharged at trace levels in food packed in metal cans with PVC lining. This represents a cause for concern because of potential effects of bisphenol A to human health. In this paper, the authors compiled data on the methods used for analysis of bisphenol A in canned food published in the last ten years.

2009

Bisphenol A Toxicity in Milk: A Review
Nature and Science, 2009, 7(8):83-85
Taskeen, A., and Naeem, I.

Abstract:  Bisphenol A is constantly discharged at trace levels in food packed in metal cans with PVC lining. This represents a cause for concern because of potential effects of bisphenol A to human health. We compiled data on the analysis of bisphenol A in milk samples, published in the last 10 years. Pubmed and Medline were used to search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals written in the English language since 1999. Information on Bisphenol A concentrations in milk, the source of contamination, year of publication and method of analysis was extracted.

Isolation of Flavonols from Euphorbia wallichii by Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Nature and Science, 2009, 7(8): 86-88
Taskeen A., Naeem, I., and Mubeen, H.

Abstract: Flavonoids are a diverse group of natural products found in all plants. In present study three flavonols namely quercetin, kaemferol and myricetin were identified and isolated in Euphorbia wallichii in different solvents. Study was carried out on acid hydrolyzed methanolic extracts which was further fractionated into diethyl ether, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts. Quercetin was found to be the most abundant flavonol present in Euphorbia wallichii.

Comparison of Biomasses of Different Plants for Phytoremediation of Arsenic
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2009, 21(4):2857-2860
Taskeen, A., Naeem, I., Mubeen, H., and Moeen, T.

Abstract: The removal of heavy metals from drinking water, lake and waste water is crucial issue concern to health. The brake fern, Pteris vittata, is claimed to be the first found to function as an arsenic hyper accumulator. Phytoremediation by water hyacinth presents a potential solution to the arsenic problem. In the present study three plants (Calotropis procera, Eichhoenia crassipes and Pteris vittata) biomasses are selected and there arial parts and roots (dry biomasses) are compared for the first time. Also these plants are checked for the presence of other metals. After the removal of metal the treated water is then checked for the drinking water parameters. It was found that roots of Calotropis procera are best of biomasses selected for the phytoremediation of arsenic. The capacity of removal of Calotropis roots was also determined. After treatment water samples meet all EPA standards for drinking water.


Analysis of flavonols in the peels of vegetables by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
New York Science Journal, 2009, 2(5):27-31
Naeem, I., Taskeen, A., Iqbal, S., Mubeen, H., and Maimoona, A.

Abstract: Flavonoids are compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol were used as standards. Eight vegetables were selected for the study. These vegetables were purchased from the local market in JAN 2009. Flavonols were analyzed using HPLC. Acidified 50% acetonitrile was used as mobile phase. %ages of flavonols were compared in different vegetables. Three different extraction solvents were used to extract flavonols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the better extraction condition for the utilization of vegetable peels as the source of flavonols. Then overall comparison between three type of extracted samples showed that MEOH: H2O (80; 20) was best solvent for the extraction of flavonols from the peels of vegetables under study.

Equilibrium Studies for Biosorbtion of Cr (III) by Roots of Calotropis procera
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2009, 21(6):4763-4771
 Mubeen, H., Naeem, I., Taskeen, A. and Mughal, T.

Abstract: Chromium is present in different types of industrial effluents, being responsible for environmental pollution. Traditionally, the chromium removal is made by chemical precipitation. However, this method is not completely feasible to reduce the chromium concentration to levels as low as required by environmental legislation. Biosorption is a process in which solids of natural origin are employed for binding heavy metals. It is a promising alternative method to treat industrial effluents, mainly because of its low cost and high metal binding capacity. The aim of the present study is to utilize the locally available wild plant material for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater. The wastewater containing trivalent chromium was treated with biomass prepared from roots of Calotropis procera. These studies were carried out in order to determine some operational parameters of chromium sorption such as the time required for the metal-biosorbent equilibrium, the effects of change in biomass quantity and pH. It was found that a time of 50 min is sufficient enough to attain equilibrium. The optimum pH was found to be 4 for chromium. The biosorption data was well fitted to Langmuir and freundlich adsorption model. It is concluded that adsorbent prepared from Calotropis procera roots can be used for treatment of heavy metals in waste waters.

Public Health Risk of Arsenic Contamination in Food at Old Kahna, Lahore, Pakistan
Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2009, 21 (4): 2845-2848
Taskeen, A., Naeem, I., and Siddique, Z

Abstract: Poisoning from arsenic in drinking water is a very serious problem in Pakistan stressing the need for analysis of water, soil, food and other environmental samples to gauge the extent of risk posed to the health of general public and for remedial measures. Kahna (old) is a small locality of Lahore which was selected as a test site and drinking water samples and diverse food samples were collected randomly and analyzed for arsenic contents by arsenic testing kit and atomic absorption spectroscopy (graphite furnace). The arsenic amount in samples of drinking water (from sunken tube-wells installed in houses), milk, locally grown vegetables, mutton, beef, rice is 71 ppb, 13.50 ppb, 1.5, 1.6, 0.8, 3.7 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. Food values are under permissible levels but arsenic in water is much higher than standard thus exposing the population of Old Kahna at high cancer risk and other diseases.

Investigations of Heavy Metals in Commercial Spices Brands
New York Science Journal, 2009, 2(5):20-26
Mubeen, H., Naeem, I., Taskeen, A. and Siddique, Z.
 
Abstract: In present study concentrations of some heavy metals such as iron(Fe), copper(Cu), chromium(Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium(Cd) and cobalt (Co) present in common spices of two brands widely used in Pakistan coded as A & B were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The studies showed differences in metal concentrations in different spices samples. The concentration of Fe ranged from 144.5 to 1260 mgkg-1 on dry weight basis, where as that of Cu was ranged from 9 to 44 mgkg-1 to 3.05 mg kg-1. The concentration level of Cr was from 115 to368 mg kg-1. Concentration of Co and Cd varied little and ranged from 11.5 to 15 mgkg-1 and 0.5 to mgkg-1 respectively. While variable levels of Pb were detected from 54 to 70 mg kg-1. Daily intake limit was calculated and compared with MRL (minimum risk level) values given by ATSDR (2001). Results showed that concentrations of Cr and Pb of all spices samples under study were much lager than those of MRL values. Thus intake of these spices can cause accumulation of these hazardous metals in body. Metal to metal correlation study showed strong correlation between. Pb, Cu and Co.
     
Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Flavonoids in two
Ficus Species
New York Science Journal, 2009, 2(5):32-35
Taskeen, A., Naeem, I., Mubeen, H. and Mehmood, T.

Abstract: HPLC is gaining increasing importance for the analysis of plant extracts. The flavonoids are also thought to have antioxidant, anti-allergenic, and anti-inflammatory effects, thus contributing to human health. Reversed-phase HPLC has been used in a number of occasions for the analysis of flavonoids in plants. In present study two Ficus species were analyzed for their flavonoid contents. Kaempferol,rhamnetin, myricetin, isorhamnetin and quercetin were used as standards. Results showed that quercetin was most abundant flavonol present and it was extracted in diethyl ether layer after fractionation. However myricetin was also present in good amounts. It was observed that Ficus bhengalensis contained a very high amount of flavonoids as compared to Ficus religiosa.

2008

A New Biomaterial for Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water
Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 2008, 2(3): 295-302
Naeem, I., Taskeen, A., Moeen, T., and Mateen, B.

Abstract: Arsenic is a carcinogen and a potential health hazard known to produce skin, bladder, and lung cancers. A very large segment of the population living in and around Lahore and other cities of the Punjab in Pakistan is facing a threat from contaminated ground water having dangerously high levels of arsenic. The present research has shown the biomass of Calotropis procera roots and aerial parts to bring the level of arsenic in arsenic contaminated water to the EPA standard within very short time and more effectively then biomass of roots and aerial parts of Pteris vitata and Eichhornia crassipes. The rate of removal of arsenic from contaminated water by roots of Calotropis procera was determined as a first step towards developing a safe, easy, indigenous and practical method of arsenic removal.

2005

A new Pregnane- type Alkaloids from Sarcococca saligna
Journal of Applied Sciences, 2005, 5(7):1182-1184
Naeem, I., Khan, T.M. and Anwar, R.

Abstract: A new alkaloid , named sracosalgmine [(20S)-20-(dimethylamino)-16β, 3β-dimethoxy-pregn-5-ene] was isolated from sarcococca saligna and its structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques including 1H, 13C-NMR and inverse 2D – NMR techniques (DEPT, HMQC and HMBC) UV, MS etc.

2004

New Pregnane-type Steroidal Alkaloids from Sarcococca saligna and their Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity
Steroids, 2004, 69(11–12):735–741
Atta-ur-Rahman, Feroz , F., Naeem I., Zaheer-ul-Haq, Nawaz, S.A., Khan, N., Khan, M.R. and Choudhary, M.I.

Abstract: Five new steroidal alkaloids, 5,14-dehydro-Na-demethylsaracodine [3β-Na-methyl-20S-Nb-acetyl-Nb-methylamino-pregn-5,14-diene] (1), 14-dehydro-Na-demethylsaracodine [3β-Na-methyl-20S-Nb-acetyl-Nb-methylamino-5α-pregn-14-ene] (2), 16-dehydrosarcorine [(20S)-20-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3β-(Na-acetylamido)-5α-pregn-16-ene] (3), 2,3-dehydrosarsalignone [(20S)-20-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3β-(tigloylamino)-pregn-2,5-diene-4-one] (4), and 14,15-dehydrosarcovagine-D [(20S)-20-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3β-(tigloylamino)-5α-pregn-2,14-diene-4-one] (5), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Sarcococca saligna, along with two known bases, sarcovagenine-C (6) and salignarine-C (7). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. All seven compounds were found to possess cholinesterase inhibitory potential in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC50 values ranging from 12.5 to 200 μM against acetylcholinesterase and from 1.25 to 32.2 μM against butyrylcholinesterase.

Physics

2014

Optical and Structural Properties of Thin Films of ZnO at Elevated Temperature
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2014, 606:177-181
Kayani, Z.N., Afzal, T., Riaz, S. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: Structural, magnetic and surface morphology of electro-deposited thin films of FeCoNi were studied in this paper. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that FeCoNi thin films consisting of mixtures of bcc and fcc crystal structure were grown on Cu substrate. The grain size decreased with increase in current density. Magnetic studies revealed that as current density increased from 50 to 450 mA/cm2, coercivity decreased from 257 to 72 Oe and saturation magnetization increased from 6.58 to 88.85 emu/cm2 for in-plane magnetic field, while coercivity decreased 287–203 Oe and saturation magnetisation increased from 3.91 to 36.411 emu/cm2 for out of plane. Surface analysis by SEM showed porous nature of thin films as expected for ferromagnetic thin films.

Structural and Magnetic Properties of Thin Films of Iron Nitride
Sur. Rev. Lett., 2014, 21:1450013-1450017
Kayani, Z.N., Riaz, S. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: The present paper describes a simple low-temperature synthesis method of preparing bismuth ferrite thin films by sol-gel route, using bismuth nitrates and iron chloride, acetic acid and ethylene glycol.  The films were layer by layer deposited on substrate (copper) using the spin-coating technique. The thickness of the layers was controlled by viscosity of the solutions and withdrawing speed parameters. After specific annealing, in air, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractrometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical properties measurements. A more thoroughly control of the processing parameters seems to be essential in obtaining

 

 

BiFeO3

 

 

thin films. Solution chemistry variations (differences in precursor type) can have a significant impact on the film properties. Conditions for synthesizing single BiFeO3 phase are critical since the temperature stability range of the phase is very narrow. Moreover, it is also difficult to control oxygen stoichiometry in the sample.

Structural and Magnetic Properties of FeCoNi Thin Films
Ind. J. Phys, 2014, 88:165-169
Kayani, Z.N., Riaz, S. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: Structural, magnetic and surface morphology of electro-deposited thin films of FeCoNi were studied in this paper. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that FeCoNi thin films consisting of mixtures of bcc and fcc crystal structure were grown on Cu substrate. The grain size decreased with increase in current density. Magnetic studies revealed that as current density increased from 50 to 450 mA/cm2, coercivity decreased from 257 to 72 Oe and saturation magnetization increased from 6.58 to 88.85 emu/cm2 for in-plane magnetic field, while coercivity decreased 287–203 Oe and saturation magnetisation increased from 3.91 to 36.411 emu/cm2 for out of plane. Surface analysis by SEM showed porous nature of thin films as expected for ferromagnetic thin films.

2013

Magnetic Anisotropy in Nano-Crystalline BaFe12O19 Thin Films Deposited under various Applied Magnetic Fields

Thin Solid Films, 2013, 545: 608–613
Rafique, M.S., Anjum, S. and Siraj, K.

Abstract: BaFe12O19 thin films have been deposited on p-type Si (1 0 0) substrate employing pulsed laser deposition technique. The films have been deposited under the magnetic field of 0.15, 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 T applied transverse to the plume, keeping the substrate temperature constant at 300 °C. The aim is to investigate the effect of external magnetic fields on the structural, magnetic, morphological and optical properties of the deposited thin films.A perpendicular uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is observed for the films deposited under B = 0.15 to 0.6 T. The estimated value of anisotropy field has increased with the increase in the applied field. The film deposited under 0.6 T, also exhibited perpendicular anisotropy. The perpendicular loop saturation magnetization increases from 168 to 227.5 × 103 A/m as the external field is increased from B = 0.15 to 0.6 T, respectively. The coercivity of in-plane measurements increases with the increase in the magnetic field. The films have grains of the order of few tens of nano meters on the surface. The thickness and band gap energy of the thin films increases monotonically as the applied field during deposition is increased. The maximum values of thickness and band gap energy achieved under 0.6 T, are 128 nm and 2.98 eV, respectively.

Development of Novel Chiral Dopants to be used in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal System
J. Mol. Liq., 2013, 180 (C): 74-88
Kayani, Z.N., Lewis, R.A. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: The study of chiral dopant and its application in liquid crystal system is one of the largest area of research in fluids leading to technological application in the field of display devices. Chiral dopant when mixed with achiral host mixture forms ferroelectric liquid crystal to be used in surface stabilised liquid crystal devices.4-(pentyl, heptyl, nonyl)-2, 3 difluoro terphenyl nitriles and (S)-(−)-1-cyno-2-methylbutyl-4-pentyl-difluoroterphenyl-4′-carboxylate were synthesised and mixed with achiral host mixture HM1 with the percentage of 3 and 7. Ferroelectric properties of synthesised FLC11Ferroelectric liquid crystal were studied.

Visible-Light-Induced Directed Gold Microwires by Self-Organization of Nanoparticles on Aspergillus Niger
Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, 2013, 30(5):  473–480
Sabah, A., Kumar, P., Mohammed, W.S. and Dutta, J.

Abstract: A directional point-to-point growth of microwires of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) self-organized on Aspergillus niger (A. niger) templates by utilizing positive phototropic fungal response to different spectral ranges of visible light is reported. A. niger serves as a living template for the self-organization of monosodium glutamate (MSG) capped gold colloids under controlled nutrient trigger and appropriate light, temperature, and humidity conditions. The experimental results show that control of these parameters eliminates the need for any microchannels for the directional growth of microwires. The growth rate of fungal hyphae increases exponentially under light illumination compared to its growth in the dark under similar conditions. White light is found to be most suitable to trigger the directional growth. Gold microwires of about 1 to 2 μm diameter and length exceeding 1 mm are grown within a week with a maximum divergence of 40–50° from the light path regardless of the wavelength of the light irradiation. Phototropic response of fungi has been investigated intensively over the last three decades, but this is the first report on the collective use of microbial tropism and directed biomimetic self-organization of metallic nanoparticles on living organisms.

2012

Impact of X-Ray Irradiation on PMMA Thin Films
Journal of Applied Surface Science, 2012, 259: 853-860
Iqbal, S., Rafique, M.S., Anjum, S., Hayat, A .and Iqbal, N.

Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 °C and 500 °C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm-2. Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV–vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 °C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 °C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV–visible region.

Investigation of Induced Parallel Magnetic Anisotropy at Low Deposition Temperature in Ba-Hexaferrites Thin Films
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 2012, 324 (5):711-716
Anjum, S., Rafique, M.S., Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M., Siraj, K., Usman, A., Hussain, S.I., and Naseem, S.

Abstract: In this paper we present the effect of low substrate temperature on structural, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of Ba-hexaferrite thin films. Films were deposited on single crystal Silicon (1 0 0) substrate employing the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. The structural, morphological, magnetic and optical properties are found to be strongly dependent on substrate temperature. The low substrate temperatures (room temperature to 200 °C) restrict the formation of larger grains. For the higher substrate temperature i.e., 400 °C, the grain size of the deposited thin film are much larger. The film grown at low substrate temperature do not show any anisotropy. As the substrate temperature is increased, the easy axis of the films aligned itself in the direction parallel to the film plane whereas the hard axis remained in the perpendicular direction. The higher substrate temperature caused the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, which is very important in magnetic recording devices. The saturation magnetization and optical band gap energy values of 62 emu/cc and 1.75 eV, respectively, were achieved for the film of thickness 500 nm deposited at 400 °C. Higher values of coercivity, squareness and films thickness are associated with the growth of larger grains at higher substrate temperature. - Highlights: Effect of low substrate temperature <500 °C is studied in this project. Crystal structure, surface morphology, magnetic and optical properties never been discussed before at low substrate temperature. Parallel magnetic anisotropy is induced at low substrate temperature.

Synthesis of 4-Alkyl-2′′, 3′′ difluoro terphenyl nitrile using Coupling Reactions
J. Mol. Liq., 2012, 175:72-84
Kayani, Z.N., Lewis, R.A. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: Study of chirality in liquid crystals is one of the most interesting areas of liquid crystal science. Liquid crystalline terphenyls with two lateral fluoro substituent and alkyl substituent in the 4- have been synthesised. Convergent approach was applied which involved the use of arylboronic acids and aryl halides in palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reactions. All the diifluoroterphenyls generate the smectic C phase. Mixture of 4-Alkyl-2′′, 3difluoro terphenyl nitrile in achiral host mixture HM1 generates ferroelectric liquid crystal properties. Ferroelectric properties were found to be highly dependent upon the relative lengths of the alkyl chain attached to chiral dopant. The compounds were studied using optical polarisation microscopy, differential scanning calorimetric, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Instec elecro-optical device to find ferroelectric liquid crystal properties.

Cyanoalkyl difluoro-terphenyl-carboxylate Chiral Dopants
J. Mol. Liq., 2012, 170(C): 11-19
Kayani, Z.N., Lewis, R.A. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: A liquid crystal like difluoroterphenyl chiral dopant was synthesized to match the dimensions of a host chiral dopant mixture. The melting point of the chiral dopants was decreased by increasing the length of the alkyl chain. The melting point of the chiral dopants also decreased when fluorine was on the same ring as the ester i.e. at 2″, 3″ position. These dopants were formulated with terphenyl host mixture and liquid crystal properties were assessed. New dopants, when added to the host mixture, maintain SmA 1 1Smectic A. but the SmC 2 2Smectic C. phase was reduced markedly. There was a decrease in spontaneous polarisation when fluorine was on the same ring as the ester i.e. at 2″, 3″ position. As the molecular weight of the chiral dopant increased (pentyl→heptyl→nonyl), spontaneous polarisation decreased.

Growth of Templated Gold Microwires by Self Organization of Colloids on Aspergillus Niger
Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 2012, 7 (2):583 – 59
Sabah, A., Dakua, I., Kumar, P., Mohammed, W.S. and Dutta, J.

Abstract: Template assisted self-organization of inorganic nanoparticles was investigated to render the physicochemical properties of both nanoparticles and biological materials in hierarchical architecture by using chloroauric acid and Ajinomoto® (mono-sodium glutamate, MSG) that served the dual purpose of stabilizing the NPs in the gold colloid and also nutritional source for growth of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) hyphae and mycelia (acting as living template). The coating of gold nanoparticles on living hyphae was controlled by varying MSG concentration to gold salt and the reaction temperature without requiring any hazardous re-agent. Grown microwires displayed wide variations in dimension and morphology depending upon the preheating and nutrient conditions. Uniform and thick agglomeration of gold nanoparticles at higher molar ratios (MR’s ~ 10 and 12) formed microwire of diameters between 1-2 µm and length exceeding 1 mm within two weeks.  Heat treatment above 40-45⁰C led to negligible growth, wide variation in diameter (1.1-3.6  µm)  and significant reduction of gold colloids due  to excessive surface evaporation, whereas, maximum morphological changes in microwires were observed at 30⁰C, having diameter 2.1-2.9 µm. The pH of the gold colloids was found to change gradually from 3 to > 7 during the growth process indicating the successive aggregation of gold nanoparticles on living hyphae and the consumption of glutamic acid by the microbes. High surface area of these bio-templated gold microwires is interesting for sensing, electronics, optics and catalysis applications.

2011

Study of Dynamics of Glass Plasma Induced by Nd:YAG Laser in External Magnetic Field
Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials – Rapid Communications, 2011, 5(4): 331 - 335
Qindeel, R., Bidin, N., Zia, R. and Daud, Y.M.

Abstract: A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns) is focused on glass target to generate plasma in the presence of external magnetic field in air. The variable transverse magnetic field is applied by an assembly of electromagnetic poles to create uniform magnetic field in the range of 0.1 to 0.8 T. In the absence of external magnetic field the plasma plume expands almost spherical, perpendicular to the target surface. In the presence of transverse external magnetic field there is an increase in radial expansion and plume confines in a certain region within magnetic field. The dynamics of glass plasma is investigated by capturing plume images by charged-coupled device CCD video camera. The images are captured for different values of applied magnetic field strength. The irradiated glass material is collected on aluminum substrate and surface morphology is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cadmium Substituted Ni- Al Ferrites
Journal of Physica-B, 2011, 406:2555-2558
Anjum, S., Tahir, H.M., Hussain, K., Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M. and Rafique, M.S.

Abstract: Nickel Cadmium Aluminum Ferrites with the general formula Ni1−xCdxAl0.6Fe1.4O4 where x=0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 were prepared through standard double sintering reaction method. The crystallography, surface morphology and magnetic properties were studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The expected single phase spinel structure was confirmed by XRD analysis. Lattice parameter and X-ray density were increased monotonically by increasing Cd concentration due to the larger ionic radii of the cadmium ion. Surface topography of the samples consists of fine cubical shape microstructures. The average grain size increased with increase in cadmium concentration. The saturation magnetization was found to be increased with increase in cadmium content up to x=0.50 and then decreased with further increasing cadmium concentration for x=0.75.

Growth and Characterization of Ni:DLC Composite Films Using Pulsed Laser Deposition Technique
Journal of Material Chemistry and Physics, 2011, 126: 649-654
Usman, A., Rafique, M.S., Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M., Siraj, K., Anjum, S., Latif, H., Khan, T.M. and Mahmood, M.

Abstract: The structure and surface morphology of Ni-incorporated diamond like carbon (Ni:DLC) films have been investigated. These films were deposited on Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A KrF Excimer laser (λ = 248 nm) was used for co-ablation from multi component Ni–graphite target. The concentration of Ni was varied by ablating the Ni part of the target with various numbers of laser pulses. The SEM and AFM analysis reveals that the surface is composed of segregates of Ni which increases with the increase in Ni content during the growth process. The structural investigations by XRD and Raman spectroscopy provided information about the orientation of the incorporated constituent and the ordering of the carbon species. Maximum height of the nano structures which were observed on the surface was ∼50 nm. The G-peak of the graphite was shifted towards higher wave number due to enhancement in SP2sites which have been increased due to the increase in the Ni concentration. A small change in the surface roughness ranging from 7.78 nm to 13.1 nm due to increased Ni concentration was also observed.

Effect of External Magnetic Field on the Crystal Growth of Nano-structured ZnxMn1−x+yZryFe2−2yO4 Thin Films
Journal of Crystal Growth, 2011,324 (1): 142–148
Anjum , S., Rafique, M.S., Khaleeq-ur-Rahman ,M., Siraj, K., Usman, A.,  Ahsan, A.,Naseem, S. and  Khan, K.

Abstract: Zn0.2Mn0.81Zr0.01Fe1.98O4 and Zn0.2Mn0.83Zr0.03Fe1.94O4 thin films with different concentrations of Mn and Zr have been deposited on single crystal n-Si (400) at room temperature (RT) by pulse laser deposition technique (PLD). The films have been deposited under two conditions: (i) with the applied external magnetic field across the propagation of the plume (ii) without applied external magnetic field (B=0). XRD results show the films have spinel cubic structure when deposited in the presence of magnetic field. SEM and AFM observations clearly show the effect of external applied magnetic field on the growth of films in terms of small particle size, improved uniformity and lower r.m.s. roughness. Thin films deposited under the influence of external magnetic field exhibit higher magnetization as measured by the VSM. The optical band gap energy Eg, refractive index n, reflection, absorption and the thickness of the thin films were measured by spectroscopy ellipsometer. The reflection of Zn0.2Mn0.83Zr0.03Fe1.94O4 thin films is higher than Zn0.2Mn0.81Zr0.01Fe1.98O4 thin films due to the greater concentration of Zr. The thicknesses of the thin films under the influence of external magnetic field are larger than the films grown without field for both samples. The optical band gap energy Eg decreases with increasing film thickness. The films with external magnetic field are found highly absorbing in nature due to the larger film thickness.

Effect of Deposition Temperature on Structural, Surface, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Pulsed Laser Deposition Al-dopped CdO Thin Films
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2011, 509:6756-6762
Siraj, K., Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M., Hussain, S.I., Rafique, M.S. and Anjum, S.

Abstract: The objective of this work is to study the influence of deposition temperature on structural, surface, optical and magnetic properties of the Al doped CdO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. KrF excimer laser ( = 2 = 10 Hz, l = 2.5 J/cm2) was employed for the deposition of thin films. It is observed by XRD results that films grown at room temperature and 100◦C show preferential growth along (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) directions while high temperatures (200–400◦C) lead to preferential growth along the (2 0 0) direction only. The optical constants (n, k, ˛, and optical band gap energy)of films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry show strong dependence upon deposition temperature.M–H loop of films, measured by vibrating sample magnetometer, deposited at 25◦C and 100◦C showparamagnetic nature while films deposited at temperatures (200–400◦C) exhibit ferromagnetic character. Scanning electron micrographs show degraded elongated grains at lower deposition temperatures,while smooth and compact surface is observed for films deposited at higher deposition temperatures.

Preparation of BiFeO3 Films by Sol-gel Technique and Their Characterization
Sci. Int., 2011, 23(4):255-258
Kayani, Z.N., Riaz, S. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: The present paper describes a simple low-temperature synthesis method of preparing bismuth ferrite thin films by sol-gel route, using bismuth nitrates and iron chloride, acetic acid and ethylene glycol.  The films were layer by layer deposited on substrate (copper) using the spin-coating technique. The thickness of the layers was controlled by viscosity of the solutions and withdrawing speed parameters. After specific annealing, in air, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractrometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical properties measurements. A more thoroughly control of the processing parameters seems to be essential in obtaining BiFeO3 thin films. Solution chemistry variations (differences in precursor type) can have a significant impact on the film properties. Conditions for synthesizing single BiFeO3 phase are critical since the temperature stability range of the phase is very narrow. Moreover, it is also difficult to control oxygen stoichiometry in the sample.

2010

Dependence of Optical, Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnxCd1-xS Thin Films Prepared by Co-evaporation on the Composition for x=0-1
International Journal of Materials Research, 2010, 101: 316-320
Zia, R., Saleemi, F. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: Thin films of zinc cadmium sulphide - a ternary compound intended to be used in solar cells - are prepared by co-evaporation. The films are prepared at room temperature, in a vacuum better than 10-5 Torr. The composition of these films is varied from x = 0 to x = 1 in the compound ZnxCd1-xS. The structural, optical and electrical properties have been investigated as a function of x. The direct band gap varies from 2.415 eV to 3.41 eV for x = 0 to x = 1 respectively. The crystal structure is found to be hexagonal (Wurtzite) for 0≤x≤0.8 and cubic zinc-blende for x > 0.8. The lattice constants decrease and the optical bandgap increases with the increase in the value of x. The resistivity of the ZnxCd1-xS films is found to decrease from 3.6 x 104 Ω cm for x = 0 to 69.5 Ω cm for x = 0.3 and again increases beyond this range to a value of 6.3 x 103 Ω cm for x = 1.0.

Magnetic and Optical Properties of Amorphous NdFeCo Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition Technique
Vacuum, 2010, 85: 126-130
Anjum, S., Rafique, M.S., Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M., Siraj, K., Usman, A., Latif, H., Bhatti, K.A., Hussain, S., and Naseem, S.

Abstract: Rare earth and transition metal doped (NdFeCo) thin films were fabricated on Si (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique keeping the substrate at constant temperature of 300 °C. A KrF Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns) was used as an energy source for the deposition. Thin films were deposited without and under the influence of transverse magnetic field applied across the plume. The applied magnetic field was varied from 3 to 6 kOe. The deposited films were characterized by XRD, FESEM, VSM and SE (Spectroscopic Ellipsometry). The deposited films were amorphous in nature. All the films regardless of the applied magnetic field exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The thickness of the thin films was found to increase monotonically from 166 to 266 nm with the increase in the applied external magnetic field. The saturation magnetization has a maximum value of 1682 emu/cc for the film deposited under 4.5 kOe magnetic field. The value of optical band gap energy for the same film is found to have a maximum value of 3.1 eV. The values of both the saturation magnetization and the band gap energy were decreased with the increase in the applied magnetic field.

Morphological and Structural Analysis of Nano Structured Gold Thin Film on Silicon by Pulsed Laser Deposition
Vacuum, 2010, 85:353-357
Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M., Bhatti, K.A., Rafique, M.S., Anjum,S., Latif, A., Anjum, M., Ahsan, A. and Ozair, H.

Abstract: Structural and morphological investigations on optimized nano-structured gold thin film (under vacuum ∼10−3 Torr) are reported. The Au optimized thin film was deposited on 4 N polished and analytic grade p-type single crystal (111) Silicon wafer by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, under a vacuum of about 10−3 Torr at room temperature. The space resolved dynamics of the plume is studied by analyzing CCD images of plume. Average size of deposited nanoparticles is along the preferred (111) orientation is ∼ 20 nm using PLD technique. The deposited film is non-uniform with particle size within the range of 6.19 nm–19.62 nm. There is decrease in the value of dislocation line density. XRD and SEM investigations support each other.

2009

Preparation and characterization of SrBi2Ta2 O9 (SBT) thin films
JNSMAC, 2009, 49:49-57
Kayani, Z.N., Riaz, S. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: Steady sol and gel of SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) was prepared using penta-ethoxy tantalum, strontium acetate, and bismuth nitrate as raw materials, acetic acid and ethanol as solvents. SBT thin films with 200 nm thickness were prepared on copper substrates using the spin coating method. In this work the approach to improve the synthesis of SBT thin films by a sol–gel procedure is studied and their effects on the thin film properties are evaluated. XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been carried out to assess the crystallinity and phase formation. The surface features of the films, studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy reveal the grain growth pattern. Electrical characterisation of the films such as I–V measurements have been carried out.

2008

Effect of external magnetic field on the deposition of BaFe12O19
Vacuum, 2008, 82 (11): 1233–1237
Rafique, M.S., Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M., Saif-ur-Rehman, Anjum, S., Anwar, M.S., Bhatti, K. A. Saeed, S. and Awan, M.S.

Abstract: The contribution of an external magnetic field on the deposition of BaFe 12O19 thin film was investigated. For this purpose, two (one with applied field and another without field) thin films of BaFe12O19 were deposited on the C-plane oriented sapphire (Al2O3 ) substrate employing pulsed laser deposition technique. Crystallographic orientation and texture were determined using an X-ray diffractometer. The magnetic parameters were deduced from a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). A spectrometer was used to study the optical properties of the films. The structural results reveal the film to be predominantly single phase with C-plane orientation in both the cases. The film deposited with field, however, has bigger grain size and more perfection in crystallinity. The magnetic parameters show that the film deposited with the field has more remanence magnetization and higher coercive field. The diffuse reflectance of the film deposited with field is much higher due to the increased grain size and roughness.

Synthesis and Degradation of Nematic liquid Crystal
Journal of Physical and Natural Sciences, 2008, 2(1):1-6
Kayani, Z.N., Riaz, S. and Naseem, S.

Abstract: Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (LCs) are synthesized and characterized for their optical properties.The optical properties of cholesteric LCs have been investigated with varying applied field andtime. The electric field is applied in the range of 0V – 13V, whereas time is varied between a fewseconds and 95 minutes. These cholesteric LCs are aged at room temperature as well as athigher temperatures up to 70oC. Degradation of these cholesteric LCs under different conditionsis also reported in this paper. Multi-step purification process was carried out and both the filtrate and residues are analyzed for phase identification. XRD analysis confirms the presence and absence of the main ingredients in the solution as well as in the residue.