1. Skip to Menu
  2. Skip to Content
  3. Skip to Footer

Social Sciences (2014-2002)

Computer Science


Spatial Statistics of Image Features for Performance Comparison
Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 2014, 23, (1): 153 - 162
Bostanci, E., Kanwal, N., Clark, A. F

Abstract: When matching images for applications such as mosaicking and homography estimation, the distribution of features across the overlap region affects the accuracy of the result. This paper uses the spatial statistics of these features, measured by Ripley's K-function, to assess whether feature matches are clustered together or spread around the overlap region. A comparison of the performances of a dozen state-of-the-art feature detectors is then carried out using analysis of variance and a large image database. Results show that SFOP introduces significantly less aggregation than the other detectors tested. When the detectors are rank-ordered by this performance measure, the order is broadly similar to those obtained by other means, suggesting that the ordering reflects genuine performance differences. Experiments on stitching images into mosaics confirm that better coverage values yield better quality outputs.


Corners Using the Informative Arc
IET Computer Vision, 2013, 48(4): 209
Kanwal, N., Bostanci, E., Clark, A.F

Abstract:Corners are important features in images because they typically delimit the boundaries of regions or objects. For real-time applications, it is essential that corners are detected and matched reliably and rapidly. This study presents two related descriptors which are compatible with standard corner detectors and able to be computed and matched at video rate: one encodes the entire region within a corner, whereas the other describes only the region within an object. The advantage of encoding only the region within an object is demonstrated. The noise stability of the descriptors is assessed and compared with that of the popular binary robust independent elementary feature (BRIEF) descriptor, and the matching performances of the descriptors are compared on video sequences from hand-held cameras and the PETS2012 database. A statistical analysis shows that performance is indistinguishable from BRIEF.

User Tracking Methods for Augmented Reality
International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 2013, 5(1): 93-98
Bostanci, E., Kanwal, N., Clark, A. F

Abstract: Augmented reality has been an active area of research for the last two decades or so. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the recent literature on tracking methods used in Augmented Reality applications, both for indoor and outdoor environments. After critical discussion of the methods used for tracking, the paper identifies limitations of the state-of-the-art techniques and suggests potential future directions to over- come the bottlenecks.

A novel system for spatial and temporal imaging of intrinsic plant water use efficiency
Journal of Experimental Botany, 2013, 64, (16): 4993-5007
Mc Ausland, P.A. Davey, N. Kanwal, N.R. Baker and T. Lawson

Abstract: Instrumentation and methods for rapid screening and selection of plants with improved water use efficiency are essential to address the current issues of global food and fuel security. A new imaging system that combines chlorophyll putrescence and thermal imaging has been developed in order to generate images of assimilation rate (A), stomata conductance (gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUEi) from whole plants or leaves under controlled environmental conditions. This is the first demonstration of the production of images of WUEi and the first to production of images of gs determined from thermography at the whole plant level. Here data are presented illustrating the use of this system for rapidly and non-destructive screening plants for alterations in WUEi by comparing Arabidopsis mutants (OST1-1) that have altered WUEi, driven by open stomata with WT plants. This novel instrument not only provides the potential for monitoring several plants at a time, it enables intra- and inter-species variation to be taken into account both spatially and temporally. The ability to measure A, gs and IWUEi progressively was developed to facilitate and encourage the development of new dynamic protocols. Images illustrating the instruments dynamic capabilities are demonstrated by monitoring plants responses to changing PPFD. Possible applications of this system will help meet the research communities needs for novel screening methods to rapidly identify novel lines, cultivars or species with improved A and WUE in order to meet the current demands on modern agriculture and food production.


Describing Corners using the Angle, Mean Intensity and Entropy of Informative Arcs

Electronics Letters, 2012, 48, (4): 209 - 210
Kanwal, N., Bostanci, E., Clark, A.

Abstract: Corners are important features in images as they help identify the boundaries of objects. For real-time applications, it is essential that corners can be detected and matched reliably and rapidly. Presented is a descriptor, AMIE, which is compatible with standard corner detectors. It shows that the accuracy of AMIE is similar to that of the popular BRIEF descriptor, yet somewhat quicker to calculate and an order of magnitude faster to match.


An Algorithm for the Contextual Adaption of SURF Octave Selection with Good Matching Performance: Best Octaves

Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 2011, 21(1):  297 - 304
Ehsan, S., Kanwal, N., Clark, A. & McDonald-Maier, K. D.

Abstract: Speeded-Up Robust Features is a feature extraction algorithm designed for real-time execution, although this is rarely achievable on low-power hardware such as that in mobile robots. One way to reduce the computation is to discard some of the scale-space octaves, and previous research has simply discarded the higher octaves. This paper shows that this approach is not always the most sensible and presents an algorithm for choosing which octaves to discard based on the properties of the imagery. Results obtained with this best octaves algorithm show that it is able to achieve a significant reduction in computation without compromising matching performance.


Improved Repeatability Measures for Evaluating Performance of Feature Detectors
Electronics Letters, 2010, 46, (14): 998 - 1000
Ehsan, S., Kanwal, N., Clark, A. F. and McDonald-Maier, K. D.

Abstract: The most frequently employed measure for performance characterization of local feature detectors is repeatability, but it has been observed that this does not necessarily mirror actual performance. Presented are improved repeatability formulations which correlate much better with the true performance of feature detectors. Comparative results for several state-of-the-art feature detectors are presented using these measures; it is found that Hessian-based detectors are generally superior at identifying features when images are subject to various geometric and photometric transformations.


Temporal Analysis of Temperature Trends in the Metropolitan Area of Lahore, Pakistan
Pakistan Journal of Science, 2014, (1) 83
S. Zia, S. A. Shirazi, M. N. Bhalli & R. Alam

Abstract: The impact of temperature change has been analyzed which has diverse effects on global, regional, and local scale. It is a significant step for planning climate change strategy. This research aims to investigate temperature trends on seasonal and annual basis for five decades (1962-2012) of Lahore metropolitan area (LMA) which covers an area of about 2306 sq. km. In order to detect trends in temperature time series, linear regression test of parametric statistics has been applied. Temperature variables included mean (MAT), mean maximum (MMxT), and mean minimum (MMiT), which were considered for analyzing both on annual and seasonal basis. Anomalies of temperature were plotted and it was observed that percent of annual mean temperature, and mean minimum temperature were increased at the rate of 2.5 and 5.5 percent per year, respectively. While, Mean Maximum temperature had decreased at the rate of 0.6 percent a year. Each year was divided into four seasons, (a) winter, (b) hot-dry spring, (c) monsoon and (d) post-monsoon. The percentages of significant trends obtained for each parameter in the different seasons, showed an increasing temperature trend during eight months of year except in June to September where non-significant temperature trends were observed.

Islamic Studies


سوشل ایکشن پروگرام کے پاکستانی معاشرے پراثرات  
Ma,Arif Research Journal, Islamic Research Academy, (7) 40-57.

Abstract: The Social Action Program in Pakistan was launched in 90s with the cooperation of World Bank, IMF and other donors. It basically aimed at provision of clear water in rural area, drainage, population welfare, better food, basic health and primary education. The program achieved much success in its first phase but did not attain good success in the second phase. Moreover, the program produced negative impact on Pakistan society which gave rise to several problems. A solution of these problems has been offered in the light of Islamic teaching in this paper.


پاکستان میں زکوة آرڈیننس1980ءکا نفاذ ۔۔۔ایک جائزہ
Ma,Arif Research Journal, Islamic Research Academy, 2013, (5 )1-10.
Gulzar. S
Abstract: Islam is a complete code of life which offers its own social, political and economic systems, to guide human behavior in all spheres of life. In the economic system of Islam, zakat is the important tool of fiscal policy. It is an important source of providing economic protection, poverty elevation and fair distribution of income. In the history of Pakistan, in 1980, attempts were made to implement the zakat and usher Ordinance, to get these objectives. However, some aspect in the implementation of this ordinance is debatable and need to be revised.

تشکیل نظام میں رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی بہترین حکمت عملی
Ma’arif Research Journal, Islamic Research Academy, 2013, (5)

Abstract: The Seerah of The Holy Prophet (SAW) grants the ummah complete guidelines in system making. The state of Madinah was established by the Holy Prophet (SAW) in an exceptional manner. The situation of Madinah before the arrival of the Muslims was complex as hostility ,aggression and enmity were common which did not allow peace in that city. Peace and justice were restored when Muslims migrated to Madinah.
The life of the Holy Prophet (SAW) endows useful principles for all mankind to make a uniform scheme of actions, these include; building a centre, accord and harmony among all the groups, devising contract, formulating the principles of combat and most importantly obeying to the commands of the leader. All these directions from the Holy Prophet (SAW) cements the mankind in one peaceful unity.  


قرآن مجید کا نظام احتساب اور مسلمان عورت
Ma’arif Research Journal, Islamic Research Academy, 2012, Issue: 3
Munir. M

Abstract: The Holy Qur’an presents an accurate and strict system of accountability in which both man and woman are equally answerable for their actions. Woman is accountable for her duties as well as she will be awarded by Allah Almighty for her good deeds. The Islamic system of accountability acts upon the disposition of humans. Allah Almighty exposes the human nature and its expected actions and reactions towards different situations. The Holy Qur’an tells about different states of Nafs, different schemes of Shaitaan. Besides this The Holy Qur’an directs to that way on which Allah Almighty wants human beings to act upon. Woman plays an important role in fabricating an Islamic society. That is why it is verh important for muslim woman to be aware of her position, duties and rights. She should learn the teachings and guidance given by Islam to act in right direction to accomplish herself before her Creator.  


Social Betterment of Man in Pakistan and Islam
Al-Adwa, Sheikh Zayed Islamic Centre, University of the Punjab, 2011, 26, (36)
Munir. M

Abstract: It is necessary to analyze the process of rise and demise of a society for the social betterment of man. Whenever a social study would be carried in Pakistan, in this respect, it would be observed that the people in this place share the common character from generations to generations. The aspect, through which this homogeneity of the character is depicted, is of special importance.The social system of the Sub-Continent has been subjected to darkness since before and after the creation of Pakistan. The element of this ignorance is prevalent in the rulers and subjects, families and unit of families, economics and principles of earning incomes, moral inclinations and their applications, cultural demonstrations and relations with other countries. By the brief summarization of the religious conditions of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent, this truth becomes evident that Islamic values have has little or no role in the reformation of the Muslims. As a precaution, reformation on purely Islamic grounds is needed.

اسلامی تصور علم میں تربیت کی اہمیت
Al-Qalam, Department of Islamic Studies, University of the Punjab, 2011, 16 (2)
Munir. M

Abstract: Allah Almighty has sent the man in this world enlightened by knowledge. Islam teaches man how to use his knowledge showing him right and wrong ways. Allah has provided man the best ways to gain knowledge in this life and demands from man to obey Wahi in utilizing his sources of knowledge. Islamic concept of knowledge deals with man’s training in the light of Wahi . Islam gathers human beings as one universal group. Islamic concept of knowledge deals with whole community and observes the people as a group in which nobody is free to live an unaware and untrained life. Mostly, the clashes in societies are because of the differences of understanding, preferences of skills and variations of realizations. These are among the basic subjects of Islamic thought of learning so Islamic thought gives a complete system of learning to mankind which prepares it to live a safe, secure and free life by obeying only its Creator.   

پاکستان کی مالیاتی پالیسی اور اسلامی تعلیمات۔۔۔۔۔۔۔تجزیاتی مطالعہ
Al-Qalam, Department of Islamic Studies, University of the Punjab, 2011, 16 (2) 185- 208
Munir. M

Abstract: In the history of Pakistan Ayub Khan’s era is known as the development period of economics. His economic policies were based on the model of Capitalism and followed the free market Economics principles. Two important policies, Functional inequality and dependence upon Foreign Aid were the basis of this period. The economic disparity caused the concentration of wealth in to 22 families. To avoid discrimination among classes of the society it was inevitable to formulate significant policies for the public welfare. Zakat should have been imposed upon prosperous class for the economic prosperity of the public. On the other hand dependence upon foreign aid cause increased in service charges. Instead of this direct investment should have been encouraged. Government should make strong policies for the prosperity of people. These policies could provide strong foot to the economic development of the country.  


بر صغیر کے فقہی رجحانا ت کا ارتقائی جائزہ
Fikro Nazar, Institute of Islamic Research, International Islamic University, 2010, 47, (4).

Abstract: The Muslims of Sub-continent gained the knowledge of Islam from famous centers of the Muslim world in early years of Islam. The trends of this area were under influence of the trends of Hijaz, Iraq and Syria. Different schools of thoughts of usool-e-fiqh were settled in the Muslim world before the fourth century of hijrah. There are different tendencies towards these schools of thoughts in different countries of the Muslim world. In the Sub-continent there were also more than one trends of fiqh which resulted in the semi conformity and total conformity of different kinds in different times. As the matter of fact, the scholars of Sub-continent did worthy jobs in spreading the light of Islam here. The countless number of Muhhadissin, qazis and scholars spent their lives in teaching the people of distant areas of the Sub-continent. That is why, Islam got strong roots in the Indo-Pak area. They maintained standards by writing books, fatawas and established great set up of madaris.

Management Sciences


Whether Cell Phone is Necessity or Luxurious Item

Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 2014, 19 (1): 61-65
Ilyas, S. Jabeen, S. & Mumtaz, M. (2014).

Abstract:Fundamental purpose of the study was to know about whether cell phone is a necessary or a luxurious item. Research was also conducted to explore the knowledge about different features, uses & benefits associated with mobiles. At the same time some drawbacks of mobiles were also needed to be explored through this study. Research was carried out on 250 students & teachers of 3 famous universities of Lahore. Respondents were selected randomly. Sample included respondents having different ages and qualifications. After data analysis & interpretation about the relevant topic, researchers have found that Cell phone is the best communication device and a crucial information management tool. Regardless of above mentioned beneficial facts, mobiles have also certain problematic and destructive aspects as frequent use of mobile phone may also cause anxiety & emotional stress and can also have serious impacts on kids’ studies. Finally conclusion of our research is that cell phone has so many valuable aspects & people feel so incomplete without cell phone that it has become a necessity of their lives but on the other hand, mobile has become luxurious item as well because people consider it a status symbol now a days.


Social and Economic Costs of Terrorism: Evidence from Pakistan.
International Journal of Academic Research, 2012, 4(1), 120-124
Ahmed, I. Ramzan, M. Riaz, S. Qazi, T.F.  Jabeen, S.

Abstract:World has been clearly divided into categories according to level of social, educational and economic growth. Out of these categories, 3rd world countries are sweating badly in efforts to reach the standards set by the developed nations ruling the world. Pakistan is also a developing country and since its existence, it is striving hard to meet the development standards. One way to get lasting development is to improve education sector. So targets had been settled to enhance the educational standards and boost the literacy rate up so that excellence in all fields could be achieved. These efforts were still in the way that a new problem mounted on, that hindered all the economic, social and developmental activities. Terrorism created the yet unresolved problems for the government and people of Pakistan. Starting from the developed countries, terrorist activities haunted the south Asian region as well. Like all other sectors and fields, educational sector of Pakistan has been adversely affected by the terrorism play started in the region after the terrorist attack of 9/11 in U.S. Situation got bitterly worst because the areas, where literacy rate was meant to be increased, got occupied by the terrorists and armed forces. Strikes, violence and terroristic threats did not let the educational flow being on the normal track. Terrorism engulfed the half nation directly because many families lost their working heads and young deaths caused misery. Unfortunately, rest half of the nation got paralyzed because of the economic and educational losses, it is still coping with. This conceptual study throws a light upon these losses caused by the terrorism.

Followers’ personality moderates relationship between leaders’ style and performance: evidence from institute of higher learning.
Actual Problems of Economics,2012, 2(128), 323-331.
Ahmed. I, Fiaz.T, Jabeen .S

Abstract:The present research has been carried out to discover the influence of leadership style of a teacher on the academic performance of students with self-efficacy as moderating variable. The object of this study was the students so that we can evaluate the leadership style of a teacher and to observe the influence of leadership style on the academic performance of students. An esti_ mated sample of 250 students was asked for volunteer contribution, out of which 212 students contributed to the research by filling out the questionnaires. All these students have been taught by a researcher, a faculty member at Hailey College of Commerce, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. These students were further categorized on the basis of a tenure they have been taught by the said teacher. 111 students have been taught for 1 semester, 70 students for 2 semesters and 31 students were those who assessed the leadership style after 1 year of their class interaction with the teacher. Questionnaire consisted of 3 portions for the assessment of a leader ship style of the teacher; indication of their own self_efficacy level and their perceived academic performance. Study concluded that there is a significant effect of transformational lead_ ership style of a teacher and students' self_efficacy on the students' academic performance and presumed that the moderator (self_efficacy) does not really moderate the effects of the predic_ tor (teacher's transformational leadership style) on the outcome variable (students' academic performance).


Self-Efficacy: The predictor of educational performance among university students
Information Management and Business Review, 2011, 3(2), 57-62.
Ahmed. I, Fiaz. T & Jabeen.S

Abstract:The basic intention of the present research was to explore the association between perceived academic performance and self-efficacy level of the students as it has been an un-explored research area in the Pakistan. Students were selected as an obvious target population. Sample consisted of 250 university students. Questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument. Major portion of the questionnaire had been taken form the research work done by Sherer et al. (1982). Out of 250 students, 212 students contributed in the data collection comprising 85% response rate for the study. SPSS 16.0 was used to analyze data. Findings of the study establish a weak positive association between level of self-efficacy (IV) and DV (perceived academic performance) as IV causes only 3.6% (.036) change in DV (academic performance). Hence, there is a weak dependency of perceived academic performance of students upon their level of self-efficacy.

An Investigation of SNS Usage and Its Impact on Studying habits and Academic Performance of University Students
Research Journal of Internatıonal Studıes, 2011, (21), 145-158.
Ahmed. I, Amir.M,  Fiaz. T & Jabeen. S

Abstract:This research focuses to explore the relationship between SNSs practices and academic performance of the student by exploring the relationship of SNS usage with their studying habits. A sample of one thousand students was chosen from different universities of Pakistan. At first step of Multistage Sampling Technique, simple random sampling technique was used to select 6 universities i.e. 2 from private sector and 4 from public sector. To form clusters, these universities were further divided and each cluster consisted of four faculties i.e. faculty of social sciences, faculty of business/management sciences, faculty of engineering and faculty of natural sciences. Simple random sampling was used at last stage of multistage sampling. Personally administrated questionnaires were used as data collection tool showing the response rate of 73%. Study concluded that there is a significant difference of use of SNSs between male and female students. Male students are more inclined towards use of these sites than female students. But study did not find any significant effect of area of study, educational level, study year, on the extent of SNS’ usage. Studying habits of the students were found to be significantly affected by the time spend on leisure activities, time spent on Internet, time spent on using SNS and basic purpose of using SNS while there was not any significant effect of leisure activities and purpose of using internet on studying habits of the student users. As per findings of the study, there was a significant effect of time spent on SNS usage, time spent in internet and basic purpose of internet usage on academic performance of the students. Hence, internet and SNS usage significantly affect the studying habits of the students and eventually their academic performance.

An Investigation of Mobile Phone Consumption Patterns among Students and Professionals; is There any Difference?
European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 2011, (39), 136-143.

Abstract:This research explores the use of mobile phone in young generation of Pakistan so as to find out the differences of mobile phone usage and addictive attitude regarding the use of mobile phone among young students and professionals. For getting desired results, questionnaires were used as data collection tool. The population consisted of university students and young professionals. By using multistage sampling technique, respondents were first divided into two groups i.e. students and professionals. At the time of data collection, sampling technique used was simple random sampling. Sample size represents 500 respondents, out of which 400 questionnaires were received (200 from each group) showing the response rate of 80%. Findings of the current study suggest that there is a significant difference for service providers (Mobilink, Ufone, Telenor, Warid, Zong) and recharge frequency (daily, weekly, monthly, every 2 months) between students and professionals but there is not any significant difference of use of different brands; of connection (post-paid/pre-paid); extent of calls made a day; extent of calls received a day; SMS sent per day; SMS received per day and activities depicting addictive behaviour between students and professionals. So both the groups are exhibiting the same mobile phone usage patterns. It concludes that youngsters are using the cell phone to a reasonable limit that is affordable even for youngsters being in service or doing business having professional responsibilities.



Correlates of Disordered Eating Behavior among Pregnant Women
Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2012, 27 (2) 153-172
Sohail. R and Muazzam. A

Abstract: There is large number of research evidence on the existence of disordered eating behavior during pregnancy.  However, in Pakistan no such study has been conducted so far that could address this issue. An initiative has been taken in the present study in this regard. For this purpose, a sample of 300 pregnant women (100 from each trimester of pregnancy) of age range 20-40 years was selected through nonprobability purposive sampling.  A   self-constructed  structured  interview  schedule was used to   probe demographic information (such  as  age, education,   monthly   income,   and   profession   as   well   as information related to   pregnancy such as  month/trimester  of pregnancy,    height,   weight,    nausea    experienced    during pregnancy, and use of dietary supplements during pregnancy). In order to   assess disordered eating behavior in pregnant women, the Disordered Eating Behavior Scale developed by Muazzam and Khalid (2011) was used.  The focus of  the present study was to find out the existence of disordered eating behavior in this sample of pregnant women as well as to know how factors like age, income, profession, education, trimester of   pregnancy,  nausea,  and   body   mass   index   influence disordered eating in pregnancy. The research findings revealed the existence of disordered eating behavior in pregnant women as well as the factors mentioned earlier influenced disordered eating in pregnancy. Furthermore, participants' characteristics and pregnancy related factors predicted disordered eating behavior in pregnant women.