1. Skip to Menu
  2. Skip to Content
  3. Skip to Footer

Abstracts

Session: 2010 – 2014

BS Statistics

The ExponentiatedKumaraswamy Generalized Distribution

MadeehaMumtaz   
Supervisor:    Dr. Ayesha Roohi

We have proposed a new model namely “ExponentiatedKumaraswamyGeneralized distribution”, which is an extension of the work done by Cordeiro and Castro (2009). Some mathematical properties of the distribution have been discussed. The ExponentiatedKumaraswamy Generalized Rayleigh (E-KW-G-R) distribution has been dealt with in detail. Its mathematical properties using method of maximum likelihood and distribution of order statistics have been derived.

The Impact Of Social Networking On Youth (A Cross-Sectional Study Coducted At Lcwu)

Maryam Shahzad
Supervisor:     Rashida Khalil

This work defines the fact-finding study to examine factors which cause the usage of social networking among students with special reference to students of LCWU, Lahore. The data were collected from 380 sampled students through questionnaires to guess the student’s activities towards social networking. A pre-test survey based on a sample of twenty students were carried out to check the reliability of the designed questionnaire, consisting of profile variables and 24 ordinal scale based statements, through cronbach’s Alpha. Factor Analysis and multiple linear regression has been carried out analyze the data. The factor which affect the students’ outlook towards social networking are grooming, source of knowledge, reduce motivational level, bad impact of social networking and entertainment. Descriptive analysis has been carried out on different variables. It is estimated that whatever may be the drawbacks of social networking; its benefits always score over its drawbacks.

Weibull-Lomax distribution and its properties

Hina Gull
Supervisor:    Sharqa Hashmi

Abstract: In this article, a new distribution, namely,  Weibull-Lomax distribution (WLD) is defined and discussed. Various  properties  of  Weibull -Lomax  distribution  are  obtained  such  as  survival  &  hazard  function, limiting behavior, quantile function, Shannon’s entropy and moments. Moment generating function and characteristic function are obtained. The relation between WLD and Weibull, Exponential and the Type I Extreme Value distributions is discussed by Transformation. The AMLE has been proposed for estimation of the parameters. The shape of the distribution can be skewed to right or skewed to the left. Special cases and sufficient conditions for failure rate functions are discussed. Basic properties and estimation of parameters by AMLE are obtained and verified by simulations.

Reading Habits and Reasons of the decline among students of LCWU

Fayaka Bint- e- Nasir
Supervisor:     Afza Rasul

The ideas of this kind of study arise in my mind by seeing the attitude of students towards reading, as hobby or to read books as extracurricular activity. The study comprises on the objective to explore the factors of decline in students by keeping their attitude towards reading, hence the study is conducted to explore the factors that cause the decline in reading habit among the students of Lahore College for Women University. Using the cross sectional study and taking a small survey of students.

The study based on the data and information that is collected through a questionnaire. The questionnaire includes the question about the leisure time and their habits and reasons that cause the decline in reading habits. The total size of the population under study was 7524, which comprise of students of BS I, II, III, and IV. The sample (n) is calculated by using the formula given by Yamane. Calculated sample size is 380 which is proportionally allocated to classes BS I (n1 = 120), BS II (n2 = 104), BS III (n3 = 81) and BS IV (n4 = 75). The Statistical Analysis comprises of the firstly the checking the reliability of the questionnaire, Secondly the descriptive analysis of the questions is given and thirdly the factor analysis technique is applied to analyze the data for the reasons of decline in the reading habit. The data for separately for classes of BSI indicate the five factor, BS II also indicate the five factors, BS III indicates five factors, BS IV comprises of six factors and the whole data (n = 380) also comprises the five factors, naming as the no idea what to read(lack of inspiration, can’t follow their plan or timetables encouragement, environment, mental approach, no information about new books, no idea what to read)  unavailability of the material(not present in the format that is needed, availability, price of book) , lack of resources(lack of time, tough language used in books, lesser material than required, less access to book, less no of libraries), preferences to new technologies(internet, TV, mobile, radio) and work commitment (dedication, to pass the exam, loyalty) that causes the decline in reading habit among students.

Session 2011-2013

MS Statistics

GENERALIZED POISSON-EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

Anum Fatima
Supervisor: Dr. Ayesha Roohi

In this thesis we have generalized the Poisson-Exponential distribution by adding a new parameter to the model and derived various properties for the new model. The Poisson-Exponential distribution introduced by Cancho et al. (2011) is a compound of Poisson and Exponential distributions. The first chapter of the thesis introduces the life time data and some related distributions. It also introduces the compounded and generalized distributions and contains the objective of the study. The second chapter is the literature review. The third chapter begins with the introduction of the Poisson-Exponential distribution and the derivation of new distribution; the Generalized Poisson-Exponential distribution. Mathematical properties of the new distribution have been discussed. The characteristic function, quantiles, moments, mean deviations and information entropies have been derived. The estimation of parameters is discussed using Maximum Likelihood procedure. Chapter 4 relates to the order statistics for the Generalized Poisson-Exponential distribution. It contains the density of ith order statistics, its moments and the distribution of median when the sample size is odd and when it is even. In chapter 5 we have derived the Stress-Strength parameter, Moments of residual life and reversed residual life for the Generalized Poisson-Exponential distribution. Chapter 6 contains the simulation study for the Maximum Likelihood Estimates derived in chapter 3. In chapter 7 a comparison of the Generalized Poisson-Exponential and Generalized Exponential-Poisson distributions has been done.

DETERMINANTS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT OF NEW BORN IN PAKISTAN: COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE IMPUTATION AND DELETION METHOD

Hina Saher
Supervisor: Dr. Asifa Kamal

The purpose of current study was to determine the socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting size of child at birth in Pakistan. A large number of data was missing in this study. Wealth index, multiple births, age of women at first birth and gender of child were significantly associated with size of child at birth. In Punjab (education of women and gender of child), Sindh (multiple births, age of women at first birth and antenatal visits), KPK (education of women and current age of mother) and Baluchistan (education of women and work status of women) were significantly associated with size of child at birth. For missing data, multiple imputation and deletion method was used. Significance and direction of education of women, education of husband, prenatal visits to doctors, current age of mother, work status of mother, multiple births, birth order, preceding birth interval and age of women at first birth on weight of child remains same in both models i.e. with imputation and without imputation (deletion method or complete case analysis). But direction/trend of two factors i.e. education of husband and current age of mother is reversed. In model, without imputation increase in the level of both factors has contributed negatively towards weight of child while after imputation it turned into positive impact. Significance of some factors also changed e.g. Place of residence, wealth index, gender of child, number of antenatal visits showed insignificant effect on weight of child but after imputation their effect becomes significant. Work status of husband played a significant role on birth weight in model without imputation while in model with imputation its impact turned into insignificant. It is concluded that model after multiple imputation is considered better to study the effect of factors because when large number of data is missing listwise deletion method generates biased results. But this model cannot be recommended for prediction purpose. It is also concluded that low weight can be reduced by improving the maternal health and education. Government of Pakistan should provide the better facilities to women for their better lifestyle.

Epidemiological study of Acne vulgaris: a cross-sectional sample study of youth from public sector
Muzna

Supervisor: Mahnaz Makhdum

A cross-sectional epidemiological study of acne vulgaris was performed to determine the prevalence and severity of acne and of factors influencing the acne severity risk. A sample of 710 students (393 males and 317 females) selected randomly from 3 public sector universities (Punjab University, Govt. CollegeUniversity, and King Edward Medical College) of Lahore, Pakistan during the period Dec 2012 to March 2013. The data was collected by using well-designed questionnaire. The age ranged from 16 to 25 years. Chi-square test was used to test the significance of various risk factors and occurrence of acne. To see the effect of different factors on acne, a suitable statistical technique logistic regression was applied on overall patients and female’s population only. Overall acne prevalence was 62.3% where 53.17% in males and 46.83% in females. It was more prevalent and severe in males rather than females. Logistic regression analysis for overall model showed that age (P=0.004), family acne problem (P=0.000), soap wash (P=0.025), cosmetic (P=0.000), skin treatment (P=0.001), smoking (P=0.004), touching face (P=0.000), skin hygiene (P=0.000), caloric (P=0.006) and spicy (P=0.005) foods, skin type (P=0.000), hormonal disorder (P=0.000) was found to be significant risk factors. Also for females some other are: stressed (P=0.001), working with oil & chemicals (P=0.036), skin allergies (P=0.026) and link acne with her menstrual period (P=0.002) were significant factors. This study concludes that increased age play a protective role against acne prevalence.

Session 2009-2013

EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON THE PREVALENCE OF CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES IN PAKISTAN

Ayesha Khan
Supervisor: Dr.  Asifa Kamal
Cousin marriage is one of the traditions that are deep rooted in Pakistan society. The rate of consanguineous marriage is 67% in Pakistan. Binary logistic regression is used to study the correlates of cousin marriage in Pakistan. Education of women, place of residence, education of husband, region, ethnicity and age at first marriage are found to be the significant factor affecting the prevalence of cousin marriage.Cousin marriage is more prevalent among people who lived in Punjab and Sindh as compared those who lived in Baluchistan.Finally it is concluded that modernization factors such as increase in women’s educational attainment, urbanization, increase in age at marriage,and increase in economic status can lower the prevalence of cousin marriage in Pakistan.
Factors Affecting Students Academic Achievement into Probation Status at Lahore College For Women University, Lahore

Qurrat-ul-ann
Supervisor: Shazia Kashif

This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting academic achievement of students who were put in probation status at Lahore College for Women University.
The sample group comprised of 374 students of Lahore College for Women University based on Yamane’s sample size. Proportional stratified sampling was employed with students of different faculty. Data were collected via questionnaires. A pre-test survey based on a sample of 100 students is carried out to check the reliability of the questionnaire through Cronbach’s Alpha. Analysis is performed to test the significance of some factors. In Bivariate section, Chi-square and Phi/Cramer’s V statistics were used. The highly associated factor with probation status is work load on degree course which has maximum value of Phi and Cramer’s coefficient as .360 and Contingency coefficient as .338. The second highly associated factor with probation status is past academic performance which has value of Phi and Cramer’s coefficient as .309 and Contingency coefficient as .295.
 Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze factors affecting academic achievement of students under probation condition. The results revealed that certain bio-social factors such as father education level and home environment was one of the factors affecting academic achievement with statistical significance at the level of .05, while other affective factors such as learning power, past academic performance, missed classes, motivation to maintain high GPA, and environmental factor such as types of book read, presentation style of faculty, faculty interest in teaching, and work load on degree course also affect academic achievement with statistical significance at the level of .05.                                                                                        
Determination of The Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Heart Disease in Lahore

Tehreem Khadim
Supervisor: Tahira Bano
Abstract

This is the hospital based cross-sectional study comprising of both descriptive and analytic components that included 200 patients who underwent treatment for their heart at two selected public sector hospitals of Lahore, namely Mayo and Institute of Cardiology hospitals during the period September 2012 to May 2013. The objective of the study is to identify the significant risk factors attributable to the disease of heart and determine the predictive strength of the risk factors. Out of total 200 heart patients, 100 are cases and 100 are controls. A tool which is used to collect data is a self-structuredquestionnaire. Multiple linear logistic model is fitted to all patients. From the risk factors of age, gender, income group, blood pressure, stress, physical feature, diet, smoke, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cholesterol level and family history  the predictive model the significant risk factors are the age, body weight, blood pressure, stress, consumption of vegetable and fruits, consumption of ghee, history of family cholesterol level and consumption of fish.
DISTRIBUTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EXPONENTIATED TYPE II GUMBEL DISTRIBUTION

Aiza Javeed
Supervisor: Mariyam Hafeez
Abstract

This study deals with the exponentiated type II Gambel Distribution, which is the extension of Type II Gumbel Distribution, the probability density function and distributional properties of this new distribution have been derived. In this study Distribution Function, Hazard Function, Survival Function, rth moment, Skewness, Kurtosis, Mean Deviation about Mean and Mean Deviation about Median have been derived. The density of order statistics and qth moment for rth order statistics and sth order statistics have also been discussed. Maximum likelihood estimators of exponentiated type II Gambel Distribution have been derived. Covariance of joint density has also been derived.
THE EXPONENTIATED TYPE I GUMBEL DISTRIBUTION

Fareeha Kanwal
Supervisor: Ms. Asma Zeb
Abstract

The three parameter distribution named as The Exponentiated type I Gumbel Distribution is derived in this study. The distributional properties of this new class are derived. The Probability density function, Cumulative distribution Function, The shape, Hazard Function, Survival Function, Moments, Characteristics function, Moment generating function, Mean Deviation about Mean and Median have been derived. The Maximum likelihood estimates and the densities of minimum and maximum order statistics as well as the joint density of rth and sth order statistics and first four moments of the rth order statistics have been derived.

Session: 2008-12

EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON SON PREFERENCE IN PAKISTAN (ANALYSIS AT NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL LEVEL)

Fatima Waqar

Supervisor: Asifa Kamal

ABSTRACT

In the present study factors affecting son preference are addressed to understand the nature of their effect in Pakistan. The data is from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2006-07. At the first stage of analysis, ideal number of sons is taken as an absolute indicator of son preference. The results show that most of the Pakistani women want 1 to 3 sons in their family. But maximum number of women wants two sons. Region, place of residence, age of women, education of women and wealth index are the significant factors affecting the ideal number of sons. In the second stage of analysis, attitudinal son preference is taken as relative indicator and computed by comparing it with desirable number of daughters. Effect of same factors is documented on this response variable and regional comparison is also studied. It is discovered that son preference is stronger in KPK and Baluchistan than Punjab and Sindh. Place of residence (Pakistan, Punjab, Sindh), age of women (Punjab), education of women (Sindh, Baluchistan), work status of women (Pakistan, Punjab), wealth index (Pakistan, Punjab, KPK), husband desire for children (Pakistan, Sindh) and polygyny (Punjab) are significantly associated with son preference. Modernization factors such as increase in women’s educational attainment, her engagement in labour market, urbanization and increase in economic status has lowered the son preference in Pakistan. Son preference is not strong for younger generation of woman as compared to older generation. But these factors have varying effect in provisional analysis. 

THE IMPACT OF INTERNET ON SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND EDUCATION FACTORS

Iqra Ashraf

Supervisor: Iram Usman  

ABSTRACT

This work describes the exploratory study to examine factors which cause the usage of internet among students, with special reference to students of LCWU, Lahore. The data were collected from 385 sampled students through questionnaires to estimate the student’s behavior towards internet. A pre-test survey based on a sample of twenty students was carried out to check the reliability of the designed questionnaire, consisting of profile variables and 48 ordinal scale based statements, through cronbach’s Alpha. Factor analysis has been carried out to analyze the data. The factor which affect the student’s attitude towards internet are education, professional advantages, health disadvantages, internet disadvantages, professional disadvantages, entertainment through different chat rooms and messengers, entertainment and social and cultural life. Descriptive analysis has also been carried out on different variables. It is evaluated that whatever may be the disadvantages of internet; its advantages always score over its disadvantages.

Session: 2007-11

DISTRIBUTIONAL PROPERTIES OF GENERALIZED ORDER STATISTICS FOR EXTENDED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

Anum Fatima

Supervisor: Dr. Ayesha Roohi

ABSTRACT

In our research work we have tried to derive the distributional properties of generalized order statistics for extended exponential distribution, recently introduced by Nadarajah and Haghighi. First Chapter of the thesis comprises the introduction to the concept of generalized order statistics introduced by Kamps. Some sub-models of generalized order statistics are also mentioned in that chapter. A brief introduction of the extended exponential distribution is given. Second Chapter gives a brief review of the literature on generalized order statistics. In chapter 3 the densities of generalized order statistics for extended exponential distribution for m=-1 and   are derived. Then we obtained sth moment for both the densities derived and using these expressions the means and variances of the densities for m=-1 and  are obtained. We also worked on the sth negative moment for both the cases m=-1 and   in this chapter. In the end we derived the joint densities for rth and sth generalized order statistics from extended exponential distribution when m=-1 and  .

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FEMALE TEACHERS IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
(A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY)

Shazia Qasim
Supervisor: Naila Amjad

ABSTRACT

This is a school based cross-sectional study consisting of both descriptive and analytical mechanisms. It includes 366 female teachers who experienced the job satisfaction at seventeen randomly selected private and public schools (four private and thirteen public schools) of Lahore. The study period was September to December. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors of the job satisfaction among female teachers and to determine the predictive strength of factors. For the 366 teachers, 323 are cases and 43 are controls. The data is collected through questionnaire. Reliability test is applied through Cronbach’s Alpha. Significance of the factors is obtained through the analysis. Multiple Logistic Model is fitted to female teachers. The significant factors of the model are status, job, qualification, income, stress and pay package.

Session: 2006-10

THE DISTRIBUTIONAL PROPERTIES OF THE EXPONENTIATED RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION

Bilqees Qamar
Supervisor: Dr. Ayesha Roohi

ABSTRACT

In this thesis we have named the Generalized Rayleigh distribution as the Exponentiated Rayleigh distribution as it belongs to the class of Exponentiated distributions. Some properties of this distribution while have not so far been dealt with are derived. The characteristic function and nth order moment about origin are derived. Formulas for mean deviation about mean and median are also obtained. The relationship of Exponentiated Rayleigh distribution with other Exponentiated distributions is also studied. The mean, variance and covariance of order statistics from an Exponentiated Rayleigh distribution are also obtained.
Probability integral transform has been used for simulating samples from this distribution, in order to study the behavior of the scale parameter for different values of the shape parameter.

A SURVEY STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE AT
LCWU, LAHORE

Aasia Fazal, Najma Basheer and Samreen Zulfiqar
Supervisors: Iram Javed and Uzma Nauman

ABSTRACT

This is a school based cross-sectional study consisting of both descriptive and analytical mechanisms. It includes 366 female teachers who experienced the job satisfaction at seventeen randomly selected private and public schools (four private and thirteen public schools) of Lahore. The study period was September to December. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors of the job satisfaction among female teachers and to determine the predictive strength of factors. For the 366 teachers, 323 are cases and 43 are controls. The data is collected through questionnaire. Reliability test is applied through Cronbach’s Alpha. Significance of the factors is obtained through the analysis. Multiple Logistic Model is fitted to female teachers. The significant factors of the model are status, job, qualification, income, stress and pay package.

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT RATIO-TYPE AND REGRESSION-TYPE ESTIMATORS

Riffat Jabeen, Nida Mahmood and Kiran Saeed
Supervisors: Naila Amjad and Alia Fawad

ABSTRACT

An empirical study is done in this thesis to study the effect of ranks of correlation coefficients and ranks of coefficient of variations of study variable on the ranks of Mean Square Errors of estimators, for this purpose the multiple regression lines are fitted. Simple random sampling, Classical ratio estimator (1940), Classical regression estimator (1942), Hartley and Ross estimator (1954), Pascual estimator (1961), Walsh estimator (1970), Gupta estimator (1978), Srivenkataramana and Tracy estimator (1979), and Sahai estimator (1979) are the estimators which are used for the study. The Mean Square Errors of the Estimators are calculated with equal probability without replacement of size two.

Session: 2005-09

DISTRIBUTIONAL PROPERTIES OF GENERALIZED ORDER STATISTICS FOR EXPONENTIATED PARETO I DISTRIBUTION

Saba Aziz
Supervisor: Dr. Ayesha Roohi

ABSTRACT

Order statistics and record values are extensively used in statistical analysis. Both are particular cases of generalized order statistics.The distributional properties of Generalized Order Statistics for Exponentiated Pareto I distribution have been obtained in this paper. The properties are derived for two Special cases i.e.; for m=-1 and m≠-1.The p.d.f and sth positive and negative moments for both the cases are derived separately. The joint density of rth and sth GOS of Exponentiated Pareto I Distribution is also obtained for m=-1 and m≠ -1.

DISTRIBUTIONAL PROPERTIES OF TRUNCATED BETA-PARETO DISTRIBUTION

Atiqa Tariq
Supervisor: Dr. Ayesha Roohi

ABSTRACT

Akinsete et al. (2008) derived the four parameter beta-Pareto distribution and discussed its properties. They fitted the distribution to two sets of flood data and compared its performance with other distributions. In this thesis the distributional properties of truncated beta-Pareto distribution have been derived. In chapter 1 of the thesis a brief introduction of Pareto distribution, truncated Pareto and Generalized Pareto distribution has been given. Uses of this distribution in various fields have been discussed. Work done so far in the field of beta-type distributions has also been given. In chapter 2 the probability density function of the beta Pareto distribution truncated on the right at ‘r’ has been derived. Some special cases of truncated beta-Pareto distribution have been discussed. The shapes of the density and hazard rate function have also been discussed for different values of the parameters. The limit behavior of this distribution has been obtained. Some properties of the distribution such as the characteristic function, positive and negative moments about the origin, mean, variance, measures of skewness and kurtosis have been dealt with. Table of mean and variance for different values of parameters has been provided. Mean deviations about mean and median have been obtained. Estimation of parameters using the method of maximum likelihood has been done.

DETERMINATION OF RISK FACTORS THAT CAUSE OVERWEIGHT TENDING TO OBESITY
A Cross-Sectional Sample Based Study of Female Youth of LCWU, Lahore, Pakistan.

Tooba Khan
Supervisor: MahnazMakhdum

ABSTRACT

A cross sectional study has been carried out and data has been collected from a sample of size 378 out of 7058 students of Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan using "Youth Obesity Questionnaire". The main objective of this study is to determine risk factors that cause overweight tending to obesity among female youth. Body Mass Index (BMI) has been calculated to assess the weight status and has been used as dependent variable. Multiple Linear Regression has been used and risk factors as mother's age at the time of baby's birth, birth weight, mother's BMI, vegetable consumption, time spent in study, working on computer and watching T.V., breakfast skipping, fruit consumption, age, physical activity, father's BMI and fast food consumption have been found significant. Physical activity, fruit consumption and vegetable consumption have negative relationship whereas mother's age at the time of baby's birth, birth weight, mother's BMI, time spent in study, working on computer and watching T.V., breakfast skipping, age, father's BMI and fast food consumption have positive relationship with overweight tending to obesity among female youth.

DETERMINATION OF FACTORS THAT CREATE VIOLENCE AMONG YOUTH IN LCWU, LAHORE

SaimaAshfaq
Supervisor: SaminaBasheer

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this research is to study the views of female youth towards the perception of violence. Another objective that has been kept in consideration during the study is to throw light on the main reasons, causes and factors behind violence.
The study is also done to highlight the steps by adopting which minimizes the rate of violence among growing youth. Universe of the present study is comprised of overall youth studying in LahoreCollege for WomenUniversity. For convenience sampling is done and in sampled population students of F.A/F.Sc, B.A/B.Sc (Hons.) and M.A/M.Sc level are included. Stratified sampling technique is used as a tool for selecting the respondents that are surveyed.
Simple random sampling is done within the strata according to the Roll Numbers of the respondents using random Number Table. A sample of 378 students is selected. Face-to-face survey method is used as a tool for the data collection. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis is used.
A pre-test survey based on a sample of 25 students was carried out to check the reliability of the questionnaire through Cronbach’s alpha. Factor analysis has been used as the statistical technique to analyze the data.
The factors considered associated with violence in the study are Mass Media Effect,Social Effect,Institutional Effect,Economical Effect,Familial Effect and Psychological Effect. Results from the study indicate that rate of violent youth increases dramatically due to these factors. These factors play a major role for creating aggression in youngsters. As youth is an asset of any nation, so steps should be conducted to provide them a good atmosphere in family as well as in society to move, and to give best of their services to the country.

FACTORS IDENTIFICATION OF MONTHLY HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE: A STUDY BASED ON THE TEACHING FACULTY AT LCWU, LAHORE

SairaMasood
Supervisor: SaminaKafayat

ABSTRACT

This research work describes the deterministic study to examine the factors affecting monthly household expenditures of teaching faculty at LCWU, Lahore. The data was collected from 197 teachers through questionnaire to estimate the factors which affect household expenditures. A pre-test survey based on the sample of twenty teachers was carried out to check the reliability of the questionnaire through CronBach’s Alpha. Stepwise multiple linear regression has been used as methodology to analyze the data. The analysis is performed on 108 female married teachers. The factors on consideration to affect the monthly household expenditures in the study are monthly savings, household income, own house, credit card and product publicity. Result from the study indicate that household income, use of credit card and product publicity positively affect monthly household expenditures but monthly savings and own house has a negative effect on the monthly household expenditures.

DETERMINANTS OF FAST FOOD BRAND PREFERENCE, A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AT LCWU, LAHORE

JaveriaFayyaz
Supervisor: Shazia Kashif

ABSTRACT

The topic under study “Determinants of fast food brand preference, a cross-sectional study at LCWU, Lahore” is selected to find out the factors which affect the fast food brand preference among female youth of LCWU. This is a cross sectional study of 378 students of LCWU, Lahore from all of the classes. This study contains 34 variables including all possible demographic, socio-economic, product-based factors. The study duration is from October, 2008 to May, 2009. In the descriptive section, count and percentages of each factor were studied which affect fast food brand preference. While analytical section is divided into two parts as bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis of the same data.

In bivariate section, we find out the association between some of variables. In multivariate analysis, factor analysis is performed to find significant factors. From the results of factor analysis, it is found that the 7 factors brand characteristics, customer choice, consumer awareness, consumer perception, family and friend’s suggestion, marketing factors and service of restaurants are seven extracted factors with regard to fast food brand preference.

AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF MOBILE PHONE USAGE AMONG THE STUDENTS OF LCWU, LAHORE

IramJavaid
Supervisor: Iram Javed

ABSTRACT

This research work describes the exploratory study to examine the factors which cause the usage of mobile phones among students, with special reference to students of LCWU, Lahore. The data were collected from 378 students through questionnaires to estimate the student’s behavior/attitude towards mobile phone. A pre-test survey based on a sample of twenty five students was carried out to check the reliability of the designed questionnaire, consisting of profile variables and 24 ordinal scale based statements, through Cronbach’s Alpha. Factor analysis has been carried out to analyze the data. The factors which affect the student’s attitude towards mobile phones are convenience, attractive purchase preferences, business utilities, general benefits, miscellaneous utilities and adverse effects. It is concluded that the average amount of monthly bill paid by students is 500 rupees, whereas their average monthly pocket money is between 1000 to 3000 rupees. Also, the number of calls received is greater than the number of calls dialed per day, on average. Moreover, short messaging service is considered as more reliable and convenient source to share information, as on average the number of short messages sent per day is 125. It is evaluated that whatever may be the disadvantages of mobile phones; its advantages always score over its disadvantages.

A STUDY ON AWARENESS ABOUT OSTEOPOROSIS AMONG GRADUATE STUDENTS OF LCWU, LAHORE

Amna Asghar Butt
Supervisor: Alia Fawad

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a bone disease that leads to an increased risk of fracture. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge about osteoporosis among the graduate students. The data was collected with the help of a questionnaire. A sample of 266 students was selected. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis was applied with the help of the software SPSS. It was observed through the extracted factors that level of awareness about Osteoporosis is low among the students. It is necessary to increase this level of awareness as Osteoporosis is becoming more common day by day.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PARAMETRIC MULTIPLE COMPARISON TESTS

Ayesha Niaz
Supervisor: UzmaNuman

ABSTRACT

In this thesis the Comparative Study of Multiple Comparison Procedures is involved. In chapter 1 of the thesis a brief introduction of the technique of Analysis of Variance is given with the discussion how we need this procedure. This chapter also includes different types of error rates whose control is the main purpose of developing these procedures and also includes the main objective of our study. Chapter 2 includes the literature review, a brief review of research work on this topic done in the past is given. In chapter 3 all procedures are discussed according to the hypothesis tested by them along with the critical region, advantages and disadvantages on the basis of control of error rate and also how conservative or liberal a procedure is. In the end a brief summary needed to be revised of these procedures is available. After that an illustration is given with the help of numerical comparison.

FACTORS AFFECTING PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

AreebTahir
Supervisor: Rashida Khalil

ABSTRACT

Depression is one of the major physical and mental health problems of today, which can affect the mental abilities of all age groups.  Young adults at University level are also facing this problem because of the increasing Competition in Education Sector, which results in pessimistic attitude towards future and affects their output in form of bad results or low Grades in Studies. It may be due to a sense of  Competition,  Lack of Self Confidence , Financial Problems ,Rules and Regulations or Lack of Facilities at University, Semester System, Health and Nutrition problems, Political Crisis, Course Load, University Life Style, Insecurity for jobs, Favorism, Lack of Assertiveness, role of media etc. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical survey carried out at Lahore College for Women University to identify those significant factors cause of depression among university studentsA questionnaire had been designed to observe difference of rating the significant factors of causing depression among newly comer students and the senior students. The data had been collected from the B.S (Hons) Students of four years of all disciplines.
Factor analysis is considered to be appropriate method to analyze the data. The sample is taken of 367students from the University. After applying the factor analysis on the data by using SPSS, among 5 suggested factors and by analyzing the components of these factors three major effective factors psychological, environmental and education system are found that provoke depression among  BA/BS (Hons) of 1st& 2nd year students.

DETERMINATION OF RISK FACTORS OF CATARACT
(A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY)

Saba Majeed
Supervisor: SamiaAyub

ABSTRACT

This is a hospital based cross-sectional study comprising of both descriptive and analytical components that included 400 patients who underwent treatment for their eye at three randomly selected public sector hospitals of Lahore, namely Mayo, General and Services during the period September 2008 to April 2009. The objective of study is to identify the significant risk factors attributable to the disease of cataract and to determine the predictive strength of the risk factors. Out of total 400 eye patients, 200 are cases and 200 are controls. A tool which is used to collect data is a well designed questionnaire. A pre-test survey based on a sample of twenty patients is carried out to check the reliability of the questionnaire through Cronbach’s Alpha. Analysis is performed to test the significance of some risk factors at fixed levels of other factors. Multiple linear logistic model is fitted to all patients. In the predictive model the significant risk factors are gender, income, age, eye injury, diabetes, other body diseases and smoking.


FACTOR ANALYSIS OF TEACHER’S INTERNVETION STRATEGIES FOR SOLVING STUDENT’S BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING PROBLEMS
(A Cross-Sectional Case Study Based on the Teachers of Girls Schools of Ravi Town, Lahore)

Sarah Ashraf
Supervisor: Asifa Kamal

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was to assess the teacher’s intervention strategies for solving student’s behavior and learning problems. Three types of behavior problems were taken into account i.e. behavior problems related to immature child, child with perceptual difficulty and unmanageable child. A sample of 290 teachers was selected from both government and private girls’ schools. Data collection was done through a questionnaire which comprises of 39 possible interventions. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were carried out with the help of the software SPSS. Seven Factors were identified after applying factor analysis techniques using orthogonal rotation method. These factors were labeled as family related intervention, negative intervention, teacher’s class room behavior intervention, social intervention, performance based intervention, consultative actions interventions and interventions related to teaching style. The overall mean rating of importance was higher for teacher’s classroom behavior intervention, teaching style intervention, social intervention; interventions related to consultative actions and performance based intervention. Family related interventions were given relatively lower importance. The negative interventions were given least importance by the teachers. Though teachers were very well aware of interventions but the results showed that they would prefer to use the same interventions strategies for three types of behavioral problems.