1. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions at saturated Carbons
SN1 and SN2 reactions: kinetics and characteristics, Mass law effect, Salt effect, effect of solvents,Nucleophiles, Leaving groups, Substituents at a and b carbons on SN1 and SN2 reactions. Ion pair mechanism and SN1 reactions, Borderline cases and allylic rearrangements, Neighboring group participation; Neighboring group participation of electron rich groups, Neighboring group participation by double bonds, Aromatic rings and O bonds. SN1 and SN2 and SN1 mechanisms.
2. Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction at Unsaturated Centres
Nucleophillic substitution reactions at carbon-carbon double bond, Nucleophillic substitution reaction and carbon-oxygen double bond: reactivity, ractions and mechanism of acid derivatives with alcohols,Water and amines, Chemistry of carbenes ; Structure and reactivity Formations and reactions.
3. Example of Nucleophilic Substitution reaction.
Reactions of carbon nucleophiles: Organometallic compounds; Formation and reactions of Grignard reagent, Organosodium and potassium compounds, Organocopper compounds and acetylides. Enols and enolates and their quivalents; Formation and reactions ( alkylation, acylation, halogenation and nitrosatin) of enols and enolates. Thermodynamically and kinetically stable enolates and their reactions. Scope and limitations of Claisen Ester condensation, Dieckman reaction and thrope reaction, Reactions of oxygen nucleophiles: Willamson’s synthesis. Reaction of nitrogen nucleophliles: reactions of amines, Gabriel’s synthesis.
4. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
Reactivity of benzene, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds (Pyrrole, Furan, Thiophene and Pyridine) Reactions and their mechanism- A comparative study of reagents and reactions conditions of nitration, halogenation, sulphonation, alkylation, acylation and nitrosation of benzene, polynuclear hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Examples of electrohillic aromatic substitution reactions, their mechanism, scope and limitations: Sandmeyer reaction, Gatterman reaction, Gatterman- Koch reaction, Houben and Hoesch reaction, Kolbe-Schmidt reaction, Riemer-Tieman reaction, Vilsmeyer reaction, Diazocoupling recti on, .Ullman reaction, Ritter reaction.
5. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
SNAr, SN1,Benzyne Mechanism , SRN1 mechanisms, Displacment of Hydride ion, Displacment of other Anion( halide, oxyanion, sulfite nitrogen anion), Substitution via benzynes, Bucherer reaction
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