Amino acids: their Structure, Chiral Center, and stereoisomerism. Classification of amino acids. Acid base properties, their titration curve and its importance. . Amino acid sequence. Peptides and their biological importance. Proteins: classification, Covalent structure and biological significance including Primary. Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure of proteins, as Keratins, Collagens and elastin. Conformation and function of globular proteins with special reference to structure and function of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin. Biological significance of Proteins.
Chemical nature, nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Cofactors and Coenzymes. Concepts of Active site. Substrate specificity. Affect of different factors on enzyme activity. Kinetics of single substrate reactions. Quantitative assay of enzymatic activity. Enzyme inhibition: Competitive, non-competitive and irreversible inhibition. Regulatory enzymes, allosteric enzymes, Multienzyme system, Zymogons, isoenzyme. Immobilized enzymes.
Introduction to the science of nutrition: Nutrients and their functions Biological evaluationof proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Sources and forms of Energy. Energy value of foods. Energy requirements under different living and physiological conditions. Direct and indirect Calorimetry. Basal metabolic Rate, Respiratory quotient and their measurements. Assessment of nutritional status in Pakistan. Thermogenic effects of food.
Biochemistry (Practical) Paper
Qualitative tests for lipids including fatty acids, sterols and phospholipids. Lipids separation from Calf brain tissue. Acid value, Saponification Value and Iodine Value of fats. Extraction and TLC of Wheat Lipids.
4. Amino Acids and Proteins:
Qualitative tests of amino acids, determination of isoelectric Point. Isolation and solubilization of proteins from plant and animal origin.Hydrolysis of proteins. Estimation of proteins by Kjeldahl method. Isolation of enzyme amylase, a study on its properties and catalytic activity.
This course is aimed to introduce the students to the science of nutrition with a thorough knowledge about the macro and micro-nutrients, determinants of non-communicable diseases with special emphasis on obesity and the measures sought to combat these diseases via expense of energy. The course extends to a comprehension of detailed structural and functional properties of the proteins and enzymes. The practical aspects of this course include qualitative assessment of lipids, proteins and enzymes for experience in estimation of quality of the nutrients in our routine food.
Course Learning Outcomes
The students will be able to implement the knowledge in the areas as appended below.
1. Comprehension of the sources, energy values, functions and recommended daily allowance of various macro and micro-nutrients.
2. Thorough cognizance regarding the quality of nutrients for recommendation and implementation of appropriate nutrients in daily life for improved and healthy lifestyle.
3. Understanding the ultra structure of proteins and enzymes along with their functional mechanisms to be able to identify and resolve the research oriented problems related to them.
4. Practical identification and analysis of the quality and hence functioning of various forms of lipids, amino acids, proteins and enzymes leading to experience for conducting research in these areas.
Kinetics of single substrate reactions
Competitive/ non-competitive inhibition
Regulatory and allosteric enzymes, multi enzyme system
Zymogons, isoenzymes Immobilized enzymes
Book Title : Biochemistry
Author : Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer.
Edition : 5th edition
Publisher : New York: W H Freeman; 2002.