Introduction to photochemical reactions, difference between photochemical and thermalreactions. Scope of photochemistry. Beer’s Lambert law, laws of photo chemistry, (Grotthuss Drapper law, Einstein-stark law of photochemical equivalence), Consequences of light absorption, primary and secondary effects (atoms and molecules), Excited states(singlet and triplet), Physiochemical properties of excited states. Various processes where energy can be dissipated radiation and non radiation transitions, Quantum yield or quantum efficiency. Kinetics and quantum yield of radiative and non radiative processes (fluorescence, phosphorescence, inter system crossing, internal conversion , quenching),
Stern-Volmer reactions, Determination of quantum yield. Advance approach to kinetics of photochemical reactions.Luminescence or cold light
photoluminescence,(fluorescence and phosphorescence), mechanism applications and comparison. chemiluminescence, Photosensitization,
Role played by photosensitizers, Chlorine/bromine as photosensitizers, Cd vapours as photosensitizers, Photosensitization in solid phase, Importance of photosensitization.Photochemical reactions in gas phase and solution phase, Flash photolysis.applications. Photoconductivity
Hot atom reactions, atmospheric photochemistry, photopolymerizations, photomedicines, Photosynthesis. synchrotron reaction.
Introduction to radioactive materials and Radiations
Ionizing non ionizing radiations
Natural sources human sources, Units of measurements,
Development and advancement in radiation chemistry,
Interaction of radiation with matter, effects of radiation on matter including human body,
radiation protection, and regulations for radiation handling, Laws of radioactive decay, properties, detection and applications of ionizing radiations, General energy transfer processes, Energy states in radiation chemistry. Exited states, production formation through excited states.
Fragmentation, predissociation, photochemical decay , Evidence for the existence of excited state and its types. Ions and electrons, radiolysis of gases. radiolysis of liquids, solids, and frozen liquids, and gases behavior of ions in radiation chemistry.Linear energy transfer
Principles of radiation dosimetry, Frick dosimetry characteristic and applications of gas, liquid and solid phase radiolysis,
Instrumentation, purity of chemicals and methods. Recent application of radiation chemistry.
Application of radiation and radioisotopes: Industrial application
The course is divided in two parts; the first one "Photochemistry" concerns the general principles of photochemistry mainly focuses on the interaction between light and molecules and the laws of absorption. Lifetimes which are controlling the course of photochemical reactions-electron and energy transfer reactions
and second one "Radiation Chemistry" concerns basics of radiation,their types, fundamentals of radiation chemistry, isotopic chemistry kinetics and the applications of these in different chemical processes.
Course Learning Outcomes
At the end of the course the students will be able to:
1. Understand the concept of the quantised nature of light and matter and be able to draw simple diagrams showing quantised energy
levels in atoms and molecules.
2. Understand the relationship between the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by a sample and its potential to produce chemical change.
3. Acquires the basic principles to understand the chemical effects induced in matter by the absorption of ionizing (high energy) radiations.
4.Perform calculations for activity, production of radionuclides, radioactive decay and radiation dosimetry.
5. Know the fundamentals of radio-isotopes; productions, purification and applications
Chapter 1 & 2
Book Title : Photochemistry
Author : Calvert J.G. and Pitts J.N
Edition : 2nd
Publisher : John Wiley, New York