Physical States of Matter
Ideal and real gases, equations of state, critical phenomenon and critical constants. Molecules in motion: collision diameter and mean free path. Physical properties of liquids: surface tension, viscosity, refractive index etc. and their applications. Brief account of interactions among the molecules in liquids. Packing of atoms in solids. Unit cells and crystal systems. Method of crystal structure analysis. Brief account of polymers
and composite materials with special emphasis on superconductors, semi-conductors etc. Introduction to plasma.
Laws of thermodynamics and their applications. Thermodynamic functions: internal energy, enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Relation between thermodynamic functions. van’t Hoff’s equation. Heat capacities, concept of entropy and probability.
Rate of reaction. Rate law, order and molecularity of the reactions. Zero, first and second order reactions. Determination of reaction order and its rate constant. Effect of temperature on the reaction rate. Concepts of chemical equilibrium. Le-Chatelier’s principle and its applications. Elementary concepts underlying complex and fast reactions.
Ideal and non-ideal solutions. Raoult’s and Henery’s laws and their applications. Molecular interactions in solutions. Colligative properties. Distillation and concept of azeotropic mixture.
Concept of interfaces. Adsorption and adsorption isotherms: Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Catalysis, colloids emulsion and their industrial applications.
Determination of viscosity and parachor values of liquids.
Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions viscometrically.
Determination of refractive index and molar refractivity.
Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions by refractive index measurements.
Determination of molecular weight of a compound by elevation of boiling point (ebullioscopic method).
Determination of molecular weight of a compound by lowering of freezing point (cryoscopic method).
Determination of heat of solution by solubility method.
Determination of heat of neutralization of an acid with a base.
Kinetic study of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.
Determination of partition coefficient of a substance between two immiscible liquids.
The students will understand the basic laws and applications of thermodynamics and solution chemistry.
Course Learning Outcomes
At the end of course, the students would be able to apply the thermodynamics and also would get knowledge of the physical states of matter.
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